Karl Ernst Khur German Astrologer

we know, and humans are conscious of them as archetypes when stirred by highly emotional circumstances, such as those that prompt people to consult astrologers.

jung's studies

In his clinical practice, Jung used the horoscope as a starting point from which to build a bridge of understanding between himself and his patients. He looked for common ground between his patients' birth charts and his own. Jung also interested himself in what he called synchronicity, or meaningful patterns of events. These, he believed, could be predicted, and often seemed to correlate with planetary movements.

As part of his research into astrology, Jung studied the birth charts of 483 married couples -966 charts in all - not only in their original pairings but also in chance couplings. Altogether, 32,220 pairings were postulated and examined. He found that in the twinned charts of happily coupled people there was a statistically significant presence of the aspects, traditionally indicative of a satisfactory relationship. Jung's public standing did much to convince those naturally sympathetic to the subject that it was worth serious study and, in France and Switzerland in particular, such studies began.

personal counselling

Meanwhile, a renewal of interest was triggered in Europe and America by the founder of the Theosophical Society, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-91), and her

American colleague Colonel Henry Steele Olcott (1832-1907). Soon consultant

The German Kaiser's astrological chart was unfavourably assessed by Alan Leo during World War I.

astrologers began to use the language of psychology, and to turn away from prediction and towards encouraging clients to reach self-fulfillment by advising them how to make their lives fuller and more satisfying. The language of thefuture gave way to the language of character analysis and counselling. By the end of the century, all reputable astrological teaching bodies included courses in counselling as part of their training.

world war i and the interwar years

During World War I, British and German astrologers took part in their own way and for their own sides. Alan Leo examined the horoscopes of

King George V and the German Kaiser: not surprisingly, he found the first "magnanimous" and "peaceful"; the second "extremely unfortunate".

Between the wars, astrology was taken seriously in Germany. Herbert Freiherr von Kloeckler (1896-1950) pioneered astroanalysis as an aid to psychological analysis, while actor Karl Brandler-Pracht founded the German Astrological Society and started the Astrologische Rundschau, the most prominent astrological journal in Europe at the time. During the 1920s and 30s, no fewer than 400 specialist books and pamphlets on the subject were published in Germany.

Though the Nazi Party was initially drawn to astrology, in 1934 it banned all "fortune-telling" and made the publication of almanacs and astrological journals illegal. The German Astrological Society managed to survive, integrating with the establishment and giving some protection to astrologers.

the third reich

There were some notable, high-ranking members of the Nazi Party who were enthusiasts of astrology, however.

The German Kaiser's astrological chart was unfavourably assessed by Alan Leo during World War I.

Hess, Himmler, and to some extent Goebbels, were among them, and for a time Karl Ernst Krafft (who had correctly foretold an attempt on Hitler's life in 1939) was in high favour. Though the F├╝hrer himself remained uninterested in the subject, when war broke out Krafft was summoned to Berlin by Goebbels to translate the prophesies of Nostradamus and demonstrate that it was Germany's fate to conquer the world. Astrology was used as black propaganda by the British as well, and Churchill co-opted the part-German astrologer Louis de Wohl.

Krafft, along with all German astrologers, was caught up in the panic that ensued when, in May 1941, Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess flew to Scotland in an independent attempt to make peace with Britain. Hitler, who had always mistrusted

Himmler (to the left of Hitler) was one of several high-ranking Nazis who made use of astrology.

Nostrodamus' prophesies were used by Goebbels and Krafft to justify Germany's aggression.

astrologers, immediately announced that Hess had been "crazed by astrology", and the Gestapo arrested a number of practitioners. Included among them was Wilhelm Wulff, who had been released from a concentration camp to work for Himmler as his private astrologer. Wulff survived the war, but Krafft died in 1944 in a train taking him to the concentration camp at Buchenwald.

a burgeoning scene in the west

In America, there was the same blend of popular and serious astrology as in Europe. Evangeline Adams was a vastly fashionable astrologer in the 1920s, with syndicated columns and radio programmes, but in 1914 she had been prosecuted for "fortune-telling". The judge in the trial gave her an anonymous horoscope to interpret. Having done this, she was told by the judge that the chart was that of his son and that her interpretation had been spectacularly successful. He announced to the court that Ms Adams had "raised astrology to the dignity of an exact science", and so dismissed the case.

During the 1960s and 1970s popular interest in astrology ran rampant in the Western world: "What's your sign?" became a common question from stranger to stranger, and the most popular astrological journalists became millionaires, their columns syndicated through hundreds of newspapers and magazines. In 1960, a university student called Marcia Moore had no difficulty in finding 900 professional astrologers in Britain and America to question for a thesis, while in 1969 a journalist estimated that over 10,000 Americans were making a living from astrology. But more serious work

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