## Place

Geographically, the earth is divided by two imaginary sets of circles. One circle runs east and west, halfway between the North and South Poles as shown in the accompanying charts: it is called the Equator. Other circles called Parallels of Latitude, are imagined running parallel to the Equator, and their use is to measure the distance of any place North or South of the Equator. Now get an atlas and look at the map of North America. Along the right and left hand borders you will see certain numbers. Note That a curved line runs from No. 50 on the right to No. 50

on the left. That is the fiftieth parallel of latitude. All cities along That line, in America, Europe or Asia are equidistant from the Equator, and said to be located in "Latitude 50 North."

Another line runs from number 40 on the left border to number 40 on the right. Let us note some of the principal cities on or near this line. San Francisco is a little further south, Denver right on the line, Chicago and New York a trifle north. Now turn to the map of Europe. There the right and left hand numbers with their connecting circles are also latitudes, and at the number 40 you will see Lisbon and Madrid. Proceeding eastwards Rome and Constantinople appear a little to the north of our line.

These places may be said, for the purposes of elementary instruction, to be in the same degree of latitude, and therefore another determinator must be used to differentiate the location of each place from all others.

This is accomplished by dividing the earth longitudinally from pole to pole by another set of imaginary circles called Meridians of Longitude, and shown in our chart. All places along such circles have noon at the same instant, regardless of how far they are from the Equator, or whether near the North or South Pole.

Now look again at your map of Europe. There you will see numbered lines running from the top of the map to the bottom. These are the lines of longitude. One is numbered 0. If you follow that line you will find London,

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PAR ALLELS OF MERIDIANS OF

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### LATITUDE LONGITUDE

and close thereto a place called Greenwich. That is the location of the world's greatest observatory, and for purposes of astronomical calculation all places on earth are considered as being so and so many degrees west or east of Greenwich.

Thus, by Latitude we obtain the location of a certain place north or south of the Equator.

By longitude we designate its position east or west of Greenwich.

When the location of a place is stated in terms of latitude and longitude it marks a certain spot beyond all possibility of confusion with any other place, and gives the astrologer one of the primal factors necessary to calculate a scientific horoscope-place.

Latitude is the principal factor in locating the signs of the zodiac by means of "Tables of Houses," which apply to all places in a certain degree of latitude. These tables are as nearly unchangeable as the fixed stars to which they apply; they remain the same from year to year, at least the change is so small as to be unappreciable in a lifetime.

Longitude is the prime factor in all calculations connected with the movable planets. To calculate their places at the time of a person's birth it is necessary to have an astronomical almanac for the year of birth. This is called an ephemeris because it records the ephemeral or momentary position of the planets as seen from the observatory at Greenwich each day at noon.