GOD himself, though he be one only essence, yet hath divers names, which expound not his divers essences or deities; but certain prop erties flowing from him; by which names he pours down upon us, and all his creatures, many benefits; ten of those names we have above described. The Cabalists, from a certa in text of Exodus, derive seventy-two names, both of the angels and of God, which -they call the name of seventy-two letters and Schemhamphores, that is, the expository. From these therefore, besides those which we have reckoned up before, is the name of the divine essence, Eheia, ???? which Plato translates ? ?, from hence they call God t???, others ?? ?, that is, the Being. Hu, ???, is another name revealed to Esay, signifying thee abyss of the godhead, which the Greeks translate ta?t??, the Latins, himself the same. Esch, ??, is another name received from Moses, which soundeth fire, and is the name of God; Na, ??, is to be invocated in perturbations and troubles. There is also the name Ja, ??, and the name Elion, ?????, and the nameMacom, ????, the name Caphu, ??? the name Innon, ???? and the name Emeth, which is interpreted truth, and is the seal of God; and there are two other names, Zur, ??? and Aben, ???, both of these signify a solid work, and one of them expresseth the Father with the Son; and many names we have placed in the scale of numbers; and many names of God and the angels, are extracted out of the Holy Scriptures by our Cabala, and the Notarian and Gimetrian arts, where many words retracted by certain of their letters, make up one name; or one name dispersed by each of its letters, signifies or renders more. Sometimes they are gathered from the heads of words, as the name Agla, ????, from this verse of the Holy Scripture, viz.??????? ?????????, that is, the Mighty God for ever. In like manner the name Iaia, ????, from this verse, viz. ??????????????? that is, God our God is one God; in like manner the name Java, ????, from this verse, ??? ??? ???????, that is, let there be light and there was light: in like manner the name Ararita, ??????? from this verse, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????, th at is, one principal of his unity, one beginning of his individuality, his vicissitude is one thing; and this name Hacaba, ???? is extracted from this verse, ???????????? the holy and blessed One; in like manner this name, Jesu, ??? is found in the heads of these two verses, viz., ????? ??????, that is until the Messiah shall come; and the other verse,???? ??????, that is, his name abides till the end. Thus also is the name Amen, ???, extracted from this verse, ??????? ????, that is, the Lord is the faithful King. Sometimes these names are extracted from the ends of words, as the same Amen from this verse, ??? ???? ??? , that is, the wicked not so; but the letters are transposed: so, by the final letters of this verse, ???? ????? that is, to me what? or what is his name? is found the name Tetragrammaton: in all these a letter is put for a word, and a letter extracted from a word, either from the lb eginning, end, or where you please; and sometimes these names are extracted from all the letters, one by one, even as those seven-two names of God are extracted from those th ree verses of Exodus, beginning from these three words, ????? ???? ??, the first and the last verses being written from the right to the left; but the middle contrariwise, from the left to the right, as we shall shew hereafter; and so sometimes a word is extracted from a word, or a name from a name, by the transposition of letters, as Messia, ?? ??, from Ismah, ?? ??, and Michael from Malachi, ????? but sometimes by changing the alphabet, which the Cabalists call Ziruph, ????? so from the name Tetragrammaton,????, are drawn forth ????, Maz-Paz, ????, Kuzu. Sometimes, by reason of the equality of the numbers, names are changed, as Merattron, ??????, pro Sadai ? ??, for both of them make three hundred and fourteen; so Jiai, ???? and El, ??, are equal in number, for both make thirty-one; and these are the hidden secrets, concerning which it is most difficult to judge, or to deliver a perfect science; neither can they be understood or taught in any other language but the Hebrew. Therefore, these sacred words have not their power in magical operations from themselves, as they are words, but from the occult divine powers working by them in the mind of those who by faith adhere to them.
We will here deliver unto thee a sacred seal, efficacious against any disease of man, or any griefs whatsoever, in whose fore-side are the four-squared names of God, so subordinate to one another in a square, that, from the highest to the lowest, those most holy names or seals of the godhead do arise, whose intention is inscribed in the circumference; but on the backside is inscribed the seven-lettered name Araritha, and his interpretation is written about, viz. the verse from which it is extracted, even as you may see in the annexed plate, where A represents the former part, B the hinder; but all this must be done in most pure gold, or virgin parchment, pure, clean, and unspotted; also with ink made of the smoke of consecrated wax-lights, or incense and holy water. The operator must be purified and cleansed, and have an infallible hope, a constant faith, and have his mind lifted up to the Most High God, if he would surely obtain this divine power.
Now, against the depredations of evil spirits and men, and what dangers soever, either of journies, waters, enemies, arms, &c. in the same manner as is above said, these characters on the one side ?????, and these on the other ????, which are the beginnings and ends of the five first verses of Genesis, and representation of the creation of the world; and, by this ligature, they say that a man shall be free from all mischiefs, if that he firmly believes in God, the Creator of all things.
Now these being done on a small plate of gold, as before described, (will be found to have the effect above mentioned); the figure of which you may likewise see in the annexed plate, fig. C and D, where C shows the former part, and B the hinder.
Now let no one distrust or wonder, that sacred words and divine names applied outwardly, can effect wonderful things, seeing, by them, the Almighty created the heavens and the earth; for there is no name of God amongst us (according to Moses the Egyptian) which is not taken from his works, besides the name Tetragrammaton, which is holy, signifying the substance of the Creator in a pure signification.
OF INTELLIGENCES AND SPIRITS, AND OF THE THREE-FOLD KIND OF THEM, AND OF THEIR DIFFERENT NAMES, AND OF INFERNAL AND SUBTERRANEAL SPIRITS.
NOW, consequently, we must discourse of intelligences, spirits, and angels. An intelligence is an intelligible substance, free from all gross and putrifying mass of a body, immortal, insensible, assisting all, having influence over all; and the nature of all intelligences, spirits, and angels is the same. IB ut I call angels here, not those whom we usually call devils, but spirits so called from the propriety of the word, as it were, knowing, understanding, and wise. But of these, according to the tradition of magicians, there are three kinds; the first of which we call super-celestial, and minds altogether separated from a body, and, as it were, intellectual spheres worshipping one only God, as it were, their most firm and stable unity or centre. Wherefore they even call them Gods, by reason of a certain participation of the Divinity, for they are always full of God. These are only about God, and rule not the bodies of the world, neither are they fitted for the government of inferior things, but infuse the l ight received from God unto the inferior orders, and distribute every one's duty to all of them. The celestial intelligences do next follow these in the second order, which they call worldly angels, viz. being appointed, besides the divine worship for the spheres of the world, and for the government of every heaven and star; whence they are divided into so many orders as there are heavens in the world, and as there are stars in the heavens. And they called these Saturnine, who rule the heaven of Saturn, and Saturn himself; others Jovial, who rule the heaven of Jupiter, and Jupiter himself; and in like manner they name different angels, as well for the name as the virtue of the other stars; and because the old astrologers maintained fifty-five motions, therefore they invented so many intelligences or angels. They placed also in the starry heaven angels who
might rule the signs, triplicities, decans, quinaries, degrees and stars; for although the school of Peripatetics assign one only intelligence to each of the orbs of the stars, yet seeing every star and small part of the heaven hath its proper and different power and influence, it is necessary also that it have its ruling intelligence which may confer power and operate; therefore they have established twelve princes of the angels, who rule the twelve signs of the zodiac, and thirty-six who may rule so many decans, and seventy-two who may rule so many quinaries of heaven, and the tongues of men and nations, and four who may rule the triplicities and elements, and seven governors of the whole world, according to the seven planets; and they have given to all of them names and seals, which they call characters, and used them in their invocations, incantations and carvings, describing them in the instruments of their op)erations, images, plates, glasses, rings, papers, wax-lights, and such like. And if at any time they operated for the sun, they invocated by the name of the sun and by the n ames of solar angels, and so of the rest. Thirdly, they established angels as ministers for the disposing of those things which are below, which Origen called certain invisible p owers, to which those things which are on earth are committed to be disposed of. For sometimes, they being visible to none do direct our journies and all our business, are often present at battles, and, by secret helps, do give the desired success to their friends; for, at their pleasure, they can procure prosperity, and inflict adversity. In like manner they distribute these into more orders, so as some are fiery, some watery, some aërial, s ome terrestrial; which four species of angels are computed according to the four powers of the celestial souls, viz. the mind, reason, imagination, and vivifying and moving nature; hence the fiery follow the mind of the celestial souls, whence they concur to the contemplation of more sublime things; but the aërial follow reason, and favour the ration al faculty, and, after a certain manner, separate it from the sensitive and vegetative; )therefore it serves for an active life, as the fiery the contemplative; but the watery follow) the imagination, serve for a voluptuous life; the earthly following nature, favours vegetable nature. Moreover, they distinguish also this kind of angels into saturnine and jovial, according to the names of the stars and the heavens; farther, some are oriental, some Occidental, some meridional, some septentrional. Moreover, there is no part of the world destitute of the proper assistance of these angels, not because they are alone, but b) ecause they reign there especially; for they are every where, although some especially op)erate, and have their influence in this place, some elsewhere; neither truly are these things) to be understood as though they were subject to the influence of the stars, but as they have correspondence with the heaven above the world, from whence especially all t)hings are directed, and to which all things ought to be conformable; whence, as these an)gels are appointed for diverse stars, so also for diverse places and times; not that they are) limited to any place or time, neither by the bodies which they are appointed to govern, but because the Divine Wisdom hath so decreed; therefore they favour more, and patronize those bodies, places, times, stars: so they have called some diurnal, some nocturnal, others meridional. In like manner some are called woodmen, some mountaineers, som) e fieldmen, some domestics: hence the gods of the woods, country gods, satyrs, familiars, fairies of the fountains, fairies of the woods, nymphs of the sea, the Naïades, Nereides, Dryades, Piërides, Hamadryades, Patumides, Hinnides Agapte, Pales, Parcades, Dodonœ, Fanilœ, Levernœ, Parcœ, Muses, Aonides, Castalides, Heliconides, Pegasides, Meonides, Phebiades, Carnenœ, the graces, the genii, hobgobblins, and such like; whence) the vulgar call them superiors, some the demi-gods and goddesses: some of these are s o familiar and acquainted with men, that they are even affected with human perturbations; by whose instructions Plato thinks that men do oftentimes wonderful things, even as by the instruction of men; some beasts which are most nigh to us, apes, dogs, elepha)nts, do often strange things above their species; and they who have written the chronicles of the Danes and Norwegians, do testify that spirits of several kinds in those regions are subject to men's commands; moreover, some of these appear corporeal and mortal, whose bodies are begotten and die; yet to be long-lived is the opinion of the Egyptians and Platonists, and especially approved by Proclus, Plutarch also, and Demetrius the philosopher, and ^milianus the rhetorician, affirm the same; therefore of
these spirits of the third kind, as the opinion of the Platonists is, they report that there are so many legions as there are stars in the heaven, and so many spirits in every legion as in heaven itself stars: but there are, (as Athanasius delivers,) who think, that the true number of the good spirits is according to the number of men, ninety-nine parts, according to the parable of the hundred sheep; others think only nine parts, according to the parable of the ten goats; others suppose the number of the angels equal with men, because it is written, he that hath appointed the bounds of the people according to the number of the angels of God; and concerning their number many have written many things; but the latter theologians, following the masters of the sentences, Austin and Gregory, easily resolve themselves, saying, that the number of the good angels transcendeth human capacity; to the which, on the contrary, innumerable unclean spirits do correspond, there being so many in the inferior world as pure spirits in the superior; and some divines affirm that they have received this by revelation. Under these they place a kind of spirits subterraneous or obscure, which the Platonists call angels that failed, revengers of wickedness and ungodliness, according to the decree of the divine justice; and they call them evil angels and wicked spirits, because they often annoy and hurt, even of their own accord. Of these also they reckon more legions; and, in like manner, distinguishing them according to the names of the stars and elements, and parts of the world, they place over them kings, princes, and rulers; and the names of them: of these, four most mischievous kings rule over the other, according to the four parts of the world. Under these many more princes of legions govern, and many private officers; hence the Gorgones, Statenocte, the Furies; hence Tisiphone, Alecto, Meg&ra, Cerberus. They of this kind of spirits, Porphyry says, inhabit a place nigh the earth, yea within the earth itself; there is no mischief which they dare not commit; they have altogether a violent and hurtful nature, therefore they plot, and endeavour violent and sudden mischiefs; and when they make incursions, sometimes they lie hid, and sometimes offer open violence, and are very much delighted in all such things done wickedly and mischievously.
OF THE ORDER OF EVIL SPIRITS, AND THEIR FALL, AND DIFFERENT NATURES.
THERE are some of the school of theologians, who distribute the evil spirits into nine degrees, as contrary to the nine orders of angels. Therefore, the first of these, which are called false gods, who, usurping the name of God, would be worshipped for gods, and require sacrifices and adorations; as that devil who said to Christ, "If thou wilt fall down and worship me, I will give thee all these things," shewing him all the kingdoms of the world; and the prince of these is he who said, I will ascend above the height of the clouds, and will be like to the Most High, who is called Beelzebub, that is, an old god. In the second place, follow the spirits of lies, of which sort was he who went forth, and was a lying spirit in the mouth of the prophet of Ahab; and the prince of these is the serpent Pytho, from whence Apollo is called Pythius, and that woman a Pythoness, or witch, in Samuel, and the other in the gospel, who had Pytho in her belly. Therefore, these kind of devils join themselves to the oracles, and delu de men by divinations and predictions, so that they may be deceived. In the third order, are the vessels of iniquity, which are called vessels of wrath: these are the inventors of evil things, and all wicked arts; as in Plato, that devil Theutus, who taught cards and dice; for all wickedness, malice, and deformity, proceeds from these, of which in Genesis, in the benedictions of Simeon and Levi, Jacob said, "vessels of iniquity are in their habitations, into their counsel let not my soul come;" which the Psalmist calls vessels of death, Isaiah, vessels of fury; and Jeremiah, vessels of wrath; Ezekiel, vessels of destroying and slaying; and their prince is Belial, which signifies, without a yoke, and disobedient, a p revaricator, and an apostate; of whom Paul to the Corinthians says, "what agreement has Christ with Belial?" Fourthly, follow the revengers of evil, and their prince is Asmodeus, viz. causing judgment. After these, in the fifth place, come the deluders, who imitate miracles, and serve
conjurers and witches, and seduce the people by their miracles, as the serpent seduced Eve, and their prince is Satan, of whom it is written in the Revelation, "that he seduces the whole world, doing great signs, and causing fire to descend from heaven in the sight of men; seducing the inhabitants of the earth by these signs, which are given him to do." Sixthly, the aerial powers offer themselves and join themselves to thunder and lightning, corrupting the air, causing pestilences, and other evils; in the number of which are the four angels of whom the Revelations speak, to whom it is given to hurt the earth and the sea, holding the four winds from the four corn; ers of the earth and their prince is called Meririm: he is the meridian devil, a boiling sp; irit, a devil raging in the south, whom Paul, to the Ephesians, calls "the prince of the pow;;er of the air, and the spirit which works in the children of disobedience." The seventh mansion the furies possess, who are powers of evil, discords, war, and devastation; whose name in the Revelation is called in Greek, Apollyon; in the Hebrew, Abaddon, that is, destroying and wasting. In the eighth place are the accusers or inquisitors, whose prince is Astaroth, that is, a searcher out; in the Greek language he is called Diabolus, that is, an accuser or calumniator; which in the Revelation is called the "accuser of the brethren, accusing them night and day before the face of God." Moreover, the tempters and ensnarers have the last place; one of which is present with every man, which we call the evil genius; , and their prince is Mammon, which is interpreted covetousness. But we of the Cabala unanimously maintain that evil spirits do wander up and down this inferior world, enraged against, all whom we call devils; of whom Austin, in his first book of the Incarnation of the Word, to Januarius, says, concerning the devils and his angels contrary; to virtues, the ecclesiastical preachers have taught that there are such things, but what the;y are, and who they are, he has not clear enough expounded: yet there is this opinion a;mong them, that this devil was an angel, and being made an apostate, persuaded many; of the angels to fall with him, who to this day are called his angels. Greece, notwithstan ding, thinks not that these are damned, nor that they are all purposely evil; but that from the creation of the world the dispensation of things is ordained by this means, that the torm; enting of sinful souls is made over to them. The other theologians say, that no devil was created evil, but that they were driven and cast out of heaven from the orders of good angels, for their pride whose fall not only our and the Hebrew theologians, but also the Assyrians, Arabians, Egyptians, and Greeks, do confirm by their tenets. Pherycies, the Assyria; n, describes the fall of the devils; and Ophis, that is, the devilish serpent, was the he ad of that rebelling army; Trismegistus sings the same fall, in his Pimander; and Hom;; er, under the name of Ararus, in his verses; and Plutarch, in his Discourse on Usury, sign;ifies that Empedocles knew that the fall of the devils was in this manner; the devils them selves often confess their fall. They being cast out into this valley of misery, some that a; re near to us wander up and down in this obscure air; others inhabit lakes, rivers, and seas; others the earth, and terrify earthly things, and invade those who dig wells and metals, cause the gaping of the earth, to strike together the foundations of the mountains, an;d vex not only men but also other creatures; some being content with laughter and delusio;n only, do contrive rather to weary men than to hurt them; some heightening themselves to; the length of a giant's body, and again shrinking themselves down to the smallest of; pigmies, and changing themselves into different forms, to disturb men with vain fear;;; others study lies and blasphemies, as we read of one in third book of Kings, saying, "I will go forth and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all the prophets of Ahab." But the worst sort of devils are those who lie in wait, and overthrow passengers in their journies, an d rejoice in wars and effusion of blood, and afflict men with most cruel stripes: we read o;f such in Matthew, "for fear of whom no man dare pass that way." Moreover, the Scripture reckons up nocturnal, diurnal, and meridional devils; and describes other spirits of wickedness by different names, as we read in Isaiah of satyrs, screech-owls, sirens, storks, owls; and in the Psalms, of asps, basilisks, lions, dragons; and in the Gospel, we read of scorpions, and Mammon, and the prince of this world, and rulers of darkness, of all whom Beelzebub is the prince, whom the Scripture calls the Prince of wickedness.
OF THE ANNOYANCE OF EVIL SPIRITS, AND THE PRESERVATION WE HAVE FROM GOOD
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