The Geographical Latitude And Longitude Of A Place On The Earth

Even for astronomical purposes it is generally sufficient to regard our earth as a sphere. Occasional mountains or valleys ate exceedingly minute compared to the size of our earth as a whole.

When doing astrological work for persons oi events, we use:

1) the birth of the person, or of the event;

2) the plate where it happened on this earth.

Since this place must be known in values of longitude and Latitude we either have to take recourse to Tables in which such positions are already figured, else, we may have to take recourse to regular astronomical calculations and find, them ourselves. I am giving here only a few t em arks how to find the places, if necessary, however, further on I shall bring a Table of the most important places together with their Longitude and Latitude, also the time differential between London and the places in question given in hours and rrrinuces. Since there are many thousands of places missing, which, however, in each specific case can be located with the aid of a good atlas, whose maps show the latitude and longitudes, the latter from Greenwich, the former from the equator. A table joined here shows how to turn "Time into Degrees" and "Degrees into Time" (hours, minutes and seconds. With the aid of this Table alone very accurate results can be assured, especially when we consult the maps of countries. Be sure to use the right scale of the map which is always found at the bottom of each map.

The mean length of one degree of a Meridian in longitude is 6\$>.048 miles.

The difference at any instant between Local Time (Town Clock Time) whether sidereal* or solar at any place and the first Meridian, is che Longitude of the place expressed in Time; consequently, also, the difference between the Local Time, for any two places is their difference of their own longitude expressed in Time.

The truth of this principle is easily established. In the first place we remark, that the Longitude of a Place contains the same number of degcees and parts of a degree, as the arc of the celestial Equator comprises between the Meridian of Greenwich and the Meridian of the Place. Ir is Oh. Om. Oj. of Mean. Solar Time or Mean Noon, at any place, when the Mean Sua* is on the Meridian, of that Particular Place. Therefore, as the Moin Sun moves in the Equator, it recedes from the Meridian towards the Wesc at the rate of 15' per Mean Solar Hour. When it is Mean Noon at a place to the West of Greenwich it will be as man/ hours and parts of an boar past Mean Noon at Greenwich, as it expressed by the quotient of the division of che arc of the Celestial Equator, or its equivnEent Longitude divided by 15- We assume that it is just Mean Noon there, then it will be as much before Mam Noon at Greenwich, as is expressed by the Longitude of that place, converted into time. In either way the principle stated will be true.

It is plain that the equality between the difference of the time and of the Longitude will subsist equally if Sidereal Time instead of Solar Time is used.

* "Sidereal Time": By Sidereal Time we understand a time which is measured by the diurnal motion of the Vernal Equmoi (Spring Equinox). lu movement each day amounts to Jid56.5)5S.

♦"Wean Sun": The astronomer» use a fictitious iun, to which, rhey give an average daily motion in such a way, rhit it will complete a year from 0* T back to 0"-f in exactly one year's time. In case they would use the actual iun in the heaven, which moves at times 37' per day, increasing in speed gradually to an extreme speed of l'l', no correct work could be made. To rhis Mean Sua they apply each day what is termed the "Equation of Time ", which, if considered (added or deducted as che case may be) gives ihe actual normal position of [he Sua for any specific day. (See Table III).

the present time, we hardly can believe the ancient books to be astrological texts. Wc juat don't recognize them as such, because not a word is breathed about the angles, about the planets, about sidereal time etc.

But, when we examine a text book on college- mathematics and compare it ■with an arithmetic book for the first grade public school it has some relationship. These artcicTK books anticipated, that ail known sciences had previously been acquired by the student. The reader was supposed to be of the type who is not satisfied, with common, everyday knowledge, but aspired fot much deeper knowledge, 1 knowledge which is not intended for the misses. Another illustration thai should bring home the idea clearly: Compare an ordinary calendar issued gratis by pharmaceutical companies every year with the Nautical Almamc issued by the U. S. Government! Both are almanacs. The la.ttex sounds Greek to but a few And the masses do not even recognize that it is merely a calendar. With the latter you can do a lot of scientific work; the former can also be put to use.

Of course, there is one great hindrance to help recognize chat these old texts are oodung but astrological texts, when our own education tells us: The telescope was only invented a few hundred years ago. Many instruments needed for exact observation of the planets" morions were unknowQ about 500 years ago. Furthermore, some contend that several of the planets were not known, which are now used for the interpretation, of horoscopes.

Bat ail chese apparent disadvantages did not prevent these ancients to have ways and means of forecasting future events and to bring the laws in concise form, which never require a change.