Movement of the Sadak m thYW 4the '

occupied by different Sadak and are accompanied by COmmp caries chat explain the appropriate activities. The almanac says"

The horse Rang Ta of the got.1 The so and his squire Fa Tr' dwell in the West. One should avoid (in this direction) the p„r. chase or sale of subles or horses, journeys on horseback, taking a corpse for burial in a horie-drawn cart and, in short all equestrian activities and all tuner,try rites without exception

The twelve-year cycle is not the only one associated with the Sadak: the same applies to the Mewas and the Parkhas. The nine Mesras are thus the residents of a group of nine Sadak:

White 1 is inhabited by Sa yi Lhamo, the white "Earth Goddess."

Black 2 is the place of Dud kyi GyaJ po, the black "Demon King."

Blue 3 is occupied by Sa den Duk jc\ the blue-black "Poisoning Sen Demon," Green 4 is the residence of Lugyal Warn, the green naga with the goiter. Yellow 5 is inhabited bv Sadak Gyalpo, the vellow-gold

"King of the Sadak." White 6 is the residence of Gyalpo, the white spirit king. Red 7 is occupied by Tsen mar Chen po, the "Great Red ■ ■ ■: v .Tsen."

White 8 is the place of Lhachen Wangehuk, the white-colored "Great and Mighty God." : . Red 9 is the,residence of Mamo Dzamunti, the dark red. '. "Dzamunti Sorceress,"

All these .deities symbolize elemental earth-energies as they. ' enter into relationship -with the astrologic al configuration of the . moment.

:'.. .yk«'Tsen! the red spirits that haunt rocks, are ail-male, the ' spirits erring monks of earlier times. When they are subdued /^y;,ii'.great:>ractitiofier, the Tsen often become the guardian <>1

-'1 number of (be SacLk figures-show» in the Vaid-urya dkar po by Sangye Gyatso, regent of the Fifth Aifai U'm t -

temples, shrines, ami monasteries. Red offerings are made to thThe GrtlPo or -"Spirit Kings" are said to be the spirits of evil kt„,s or high lamas who had broken then vows. I hey are white in color and often wear armor. They arc often local deu.es of great importance, such as mountain gods.

The Dud (Skt. Mara) are openly malevolent spirits who had been fiercely opposed to the Dharma in their previous lives. Thev create obstacles for practitioners and live on human flesh.

They are black in color.

The Mamo constitute a very numerous class of fierce female deities. Although they predate Buddhism, they have been assimilated to the Matrika, a type of sorcerer of the charttel grounds. These black goddesses personify natural forces that become destructive when disturbed. They carry bags full of disease germs and comprise the retinue of the Great Dharma Protectresses.

The Za (Skt. Graba) are malevolent planetary spirits who cause diseases such as epilepsy. Some of them are seasonal: the Black Dog in Spring, the Dragon-tailed Monster in summer, the Knight on the Black Horse in autumn, and the Phoenix in Winter- Their movements have to be kept in mind and protective diagrams have to be made.

The Nocbirt, assimilated in Buddhism to the Yaksas, are the guardian-deities of the natural riches of the earth, Their chief is Vaisravana, the guardian-king of the North, who is also a wealth god. They are also associated with medicine: twelve Yaksa gencr-Ms took a vow before the Medicine Buddha to protect all those who read his sutra or pronounced his mantra,

T*10 we white deities who are well-disposed toward hu-ncuiv .

Eight classes of spirit were foreshadowed, but ten types have been described. In fact, there is some variation and overlapping m the fists of the eight classes. We may note also the Shinje, ' T l De"h " Wh° ofton 'I1clude<i in the lists of eight : ° l rm the «"«Jurage of Ywna, the personification of

• — uf <he* capable of causing illness or "stealing

one's vitality." I here are karm,c reasom for this; a person who disturbed the spirits in a past hfe, )n this one miy suffw m ¡¡^ brought about by the spirits. The Circumstances that make such an attack possible are always linked to a loss of vitality or an imbalance of elements m the victim, h is even said chat when they are unable to touch a person whose vitality is intact, certain spirits will attack the weakest member of that person's family— this js the explanation given by Tibetan doctors for certain family diseases and many conditions that do not respond to any sort of treatment. In such cases, it is necessary to perform specific practices rbar make good the harm done to the spirits m the pasr, :

There are many other types of 'demon," "creators of obstacles," and so on. According to the sources, the number of demon species varies between 360 and 84,000!

A distinction is made between external demons, who cause obstacles external to the practitioner; internal demons, who: cause internal sicknesses and disturbances; and secret demons, who are none other than disturbing thoughts. As a general.ruls,v/ the latter symbolixe our neuroses, our unconscious fears, and. our spiritual obstacles. The story is told of the poet, andyesp. Milarepa that one dav he found himself confronting i-gt»up;-isf.i demons who had taken up residence in his ca^e in order to disturb him. He applied a!i means possible to defeat than,ibtiMfe no avail. Finally, he abandoned the fight, relaxed his mtnd, and realized that they were nothing but the play of his perturbed mind. As soon as he realized their void natiiriv the manfe.»-; tions disappeared.


For those who are unable to rcalwc that demons are no than a manifestation of the ,n»u. -Ii.-c ^

ab and articles. Most of the I uu. J*** r" I"-*'1 to be carried on the person i»m..IW 111 l"e , 1)i, o)

malefic planets, ge.U.alb t.at.uc rl„ ^-u, | ^^ to. Willi tin: twelve of iUl; "«'Ivc vc.ir.vc

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