difficult ways of haling the Vitality. All the Mamas' then stop cutting oj'f the Vitality t hanks to the Do.'

The black Body pebbles indicate the influence of diseases, it is necessary to invite monks of the four schools' to a feast, transform the energy of the Body by changing one's name, and then keep one's vows.

The black pebbles of personal Power indicate a decrease of good luck. The year will be full of calamities and the Gong demons will attack one's herds and one's riches. There will be loss and corruption and enemies will declare war. It is necessary to subdue the Sri' demons. Reciting the wealth dkaranp and performing four hundred Toh will restore good fortune hy warding off the bad luck of Power and the Winds.

The black pebbles of the Winds show that the royal Wind Horse is hobbled. This leads to bad luck, misery, calamities, and hostile enemies. One is subject to unjust accusations. In order to increase the Wind Horse, one makes tsatia7 and performs oblations of consecrated water at the appropriate moment. To overcome enemies and slanders, one cures the Winds by the profound practice of To.

When Vitality, Body, Power, and Winds all have white pebbles, one is in an excellent position, without impurities or disputes. The Lha are favorable and take us to a celestial level. When all four are black, the divine tree is broken. In order to propitiate life, it is necessary to perform a hundred thousand repetitions of secret mantras in the marketplace.

When the pebbles are black, it is necessary to perform the buying back of the Lit and the recall of the La.

Of all the rituals designed to strengthen the personal energy of a sick person or animal, the most important are the Buying Back (Lti) and the Recall (Kuk), the £)o, and the To.

1, A class of ferocious female deity believed to cause various sypes of disease (see Appetidk 1),

2- A »w>de!i cross with threads of various colors bound around it, believed to

■entice certain spirits,

J. Nyingma, Sakys, KagyB, and Gelug.

4. A class, of demon believed to specialize in eating children.

5. A protective formula, similar w a mantra.

k, A rite for averting misfortune.

7- f igurines, usually made of day, used in offering ceremonies.

The Simp)«, practice ior strengthen^ VUallty or life is saving the l.ves of animal, .mended for slZhJJ t ^ of the interdependence of Ml life, saving t^^ longs our own lives. *

Mantras are often used to attain longevity, 0r fof heal; of wealth. A mantra is a sacred formula whose sound «,«4 is connected with a deity. We have m ourselves corresponding gross energies, and when the pure sound of the dekv pro. nounced, the internal are purified and transmuted, Th« activity takes us to higher states of consciousness and removes the obstacles to progress.

Buying back the Vitality or Li is accomplished by means of the Do ceremony. The object of Do is to remove obstacles aod hostile forces. When the demonic forces that cause illness, low energy, and obstacles are appeased by offerings, they give up their disturbing activities.The main offering is an et'tigy made of tsampd, representing the person to be protected. Other offering* for the demons are arranged around the person, all forming 4 ransom to the hostile forces m order to buy back lite of good health. The ransom or LU is placed in the center of a maniiak representing the universe, and the central structure of the is surmounted by a namkha, a diamond-shaped c^nstrucaoQ of colored threads wound around a cross. The oniric pnctittoiwr performing the ceremony consccratcs the offerings, nmi&s the demons to take their fill, and exhorts them to giw up evil. The effigy of the buy-back is declared to be alive «ui the deirtao is requested to release the U or individual in its power ami the effigy instead. ,

When this ceremony is not strong enough to dispel oegaove forces, exorcism or To is used, In this nnul. the vogt ikiuiw« himself as a wrathful deity and oilers the demon* r(.*mu>. cone-

shaped colored olicrmgs made ol .nd Wucr: ana W ev horts the demons ■'U.kvokm*.„ to, -^

sect ivt: deity is thrown tn the directum i* tlu a c.sptl or destroy it,

In exorcism properly so called, an effigy of the hostile force is made and plat ed in a triangular box. The demon is forced to enter this box by means of mantras, and is there imprisoned. The practitioner then destroys the effigy with a day^ei {phurba) and liberates the mind of the demon to -a pure buddha realm in Buddhism, it is not; permitted to kill a demon if one is able to liberate its consciousness.

The wind Horse

The Wind Horse, as we have seen, enables one to strengthen and group together Vitality, Health, Power, and Good Luck. There is a corresponding practice, which must be performed in the morning during the waxing moon, while the La arid the energies arc rising in the body. It is often accompanied by an offering of smoke or sang, where jumper branches are burned to purify the channels of the subtle body and the environment, and appease the local deities.

Here is the text of the ritual composed by Lama Mipham, a great Nyingma saint of the nineteenth century;

To the assembly of the Three Jewels,11 to the Three Roots,'' to the gods and gurus,

To the Three Mahasattva Protectois,'^ to Javadevt" Pcm.i 'Totreng12 and the Vidyadharas" of India and Tibet, .

To the glorious protector Ganapatr4 and the divine armies of the warrior gods,

To the five protective deities, to the great Gesar1' and others . ..

To all the deities of the cosmic lineage who rule over coincidence,

To all these I make offerings of smoke and supplicate them to bestow their blessings upon us.

Magic, charms, and sorcery of the dead, Dons, obstructive spirits, etc.

Mav all the signs that testify to the weakening and corruption of the Wind Horse be pacified!

9. Guru, Deva, and D3ki.iT, the three taiitnc .Wug«-

1! . I, has m>i been possihk to ¡Jm.iv *»«<>•

1.!. IVfrnawmlihava

13. Holders of lhtf lineage o! teaching.

14. The elephant- headed dory . „(,lSeaw of the WarWugi.

Battles, enmities, scandals, wars, and legal proceedings, Recurrent calamities and so on,

May all this discord that creates obstacles be pacified! Multiply strength and the force of virtue, Wind Horse, four-footed miracle;

Accomplish siddhislli spiritual and temporal, supreme and ordinary,

And everything the mind desires withoui exception.

There follows a group of mantras, including the Kslacakra mantra, the Padmasambhava mantra, the mantras of the Victors17 and the three bodhisattvas Manjusrl (wisdom), Avalokitesvara (compassion), and Vajrapani (energy). Next comes the invocation to the four animals that protect the Wind Horse; the Tiger, the Lion, the Garuda,!S and the Dragon, The text continues:

Make our life lift up, our virtue and our glorious

Wind Horse, higher and higher!

And by mantra put an end to interdependent origination.

When the practice is concluded, the Tibetans cry: *'Ki Ki So So LfiaGyal Lo" ("The gods have conquered"). : Ge-sar of Ling holds an important place among the deities invoked. Hero of the most popular Tibetan epic, Gesar is the warlike incarnation of Padmasambhava, who came to Tibet to subdue four demon kings. Gesar personifies the ideal of the spiritual warrior. He is the chief of the warlike gods, tamer of demons, and master of the flag of the glorious Wind Horse, He is shown wearing armor and a helmet, riding the white charger Kyang GO Karkar, which is the Wind Horse itself. Indeed, be

14. Supernormal power*. The ''supreme siddlti" is relation.

17, The five jm« the Uiddfaw of the five directions: Amogatiddhi, Akiobhya, ar'd kitr,a",nhi>iv-> (thne often recalled "Dfcyini

1& A mythic») bird associated wish Waling, fore he took birth Gesar asked fot a horse Vhich de«h c,nnot overtake; it. must be able to fly through the ,ky lnd trsvd th four continents of the world in an instant "

The name of Keser Khan is also invoked in Mongolia for th, protection of warnors and soldiers, and for good "luck In the Sharnbhala tradition, it is said that when the great battle is fought against the forces of negativity, Gesar will be the general leading the armies of Shambhala. The Dra Lha, the two warrior deities whose chief he is, are ancient local gods.

The five protector deities mentioned in the text are the five lha guardians who dwell in the human body. These internal forces are concerned with protecting man against external dangers, as well as looking after his general well-being. These are familiar spirits who accompany man throughout his life and have charge of the harmony of the family.

The Pho Lha, or "male ancestral deity," lives under the right armpit, Invoking this deity gives long life and protection against injury, In women, it is replaced bv the Mo Lha, or "fema'e ancestral deity," which lives under the left armpit, The Pho Lha protects the outside of the house, while the Mo Lh* under the name Puk Lha keeps watch over the inside. When moving house» care must be taken not to disturb the Puk Lha, otherwise;the. , .: woman may fall ill. If this occurs, the new dwelling must be purified by ceremony.

The Sok Lha is the deity of the life force, it lives in the heart and protects the vitality. It is also known as Zhang Lh*, "Deity of the Maternal Uncle."

The Nor Lh* or "Deity of Wealth" lives under the-left art»?* in men and under the right in women. Invoking this deity bon*» wealth and prosperity.

The Ytil Lha or "Deity of the Country" J^T" " the head. It protects »epuuiion, propwfy, Pflu,ks M .. one to one's native place. ■:. , . . ,, ■

The Dra Lh, 01 "Warrior Deity" lives on the . , and defends .gainst enemies. 1» Urn role, it . . .

protection against enemies ,uuf opponents.

Banjo of Becoming, the Dra Lba joins the deceased before the Lord of Death, Yama, and defends him by tallying his good acts with white pebbles. The Dra Lha is therefore also called "the good conscience inside one" or "the innate good spirit," as opposed to the "innate evil spirit,who keeps a tally of bad acts with black pebbles.

The "gods of the cosmic lineage who rule over coincidence" are purely astrological deities, planetary spirits (graha) and spirits of the stars and elements.

The Wind Horse has the power to eliminate the inauspicious influences of the constellations and planets, and thus to make circumstances favorable. When the Wind Horse is invoked, and also during the smoke purification rites, Tibetans make banners and prayer flags known as Lung Zj—-these lengths of colored fabric can be seen fluttering in the wind throughout areas of Tibetan culture: on the roofs of houses and monasteries, around stflpas and in passes and all high places, Mantras and prayers of good omen are written on these banners, and the wind carries their positive energy. It is said that making and erecting Lung Ta in high places guarantees their protection against hostile forces and assists in the growth of vitality and good fortune; and at the tops of high passes they protect travelers against the dangers of the road.

There are numerous different types of Lung Ta, but most of them follow a general pattern. At the four corners are placed the four protecting animals: the Tiger; the Snow Lion or Senge, which is white with flowing mane and tail; the Garuda ikhyung), a mythical bird, chief of the air spirits and enemy of the Nagas, the underground serpent gods; and the Dragon, These animals symbolize victory over the four fears." The Wind Horse is plated in the middle of the flag, proudly bearing the triple or sextuple flaming jewel on its back, symbolizing "the gem that satisfies all desires" or wish-fulfilling jewel (aritamani).

19. The frufctttiM virijiiuifs eiiujiwjrstc uuiuher of sets of four fears (see, e.g., Angaiiam Xiktiya, U9), the hi'jii mmiiwin j,iol>ably being birth, decay, tiis ta«, sdii death.

The rest of the flag is occupied by mantras in great variety and profusion—among the most commonly used are those of the three bodhisattvas (MaftjxjsTi, Avalokiiesvara, and Vajrapini), those of the three deities of long life (Arnkimss, Vi'java, and White Tara), the mantra of Guru Rinpoche (Padmisambhava), the Kaiacakra mantra, and the mantras of the Victorious Gods of the Wind Horse. These are invariably followed by the invocation to the four animals and the exhortation to summon life, virtue, and Wind Horse "so that they will grow like the waxing moon." The text ends with the Mantra of interdependent Origination and the expression Lha gyal la, "The gods are victorious." There are also victory flags bearing the image of the king Gesar of Ling.

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