Do nor act from jealousy or malice! Do not have any hatred!
tad yatha om ha la hala svaha hi li hili svahA hulu hulu svAhA atimukti panaye SVAHA om AKANIN1 KANA ABHiLA-MANDALA-mantrale SVAhA ye dharma hetu-prabhava hetum tesam tathagato hyavadat tesam ca yo nirodha evam vadi maha sramanah om suprat1stha vajrayf. svaha
The mantras with which the text concludes are of three sorts: the first group consists of mantras invoking the planetary forces. The second is the "Mantra of Interdependent Origination," which can be translated as follows: "Of all that which has a causal origin, the Tathagata has explained the cause; and of all those things the Great Ascetic has also explained the cessation." The third is a mantra of authentication of the seal. On the back, there are also two prayers:
King of the nagas, Nanda Taksaka, nags. of the royal caste, the nobel caste, the people, the Brahmins and the Sudras, all the Nyen and all the Sadak, be cured!
We, the yogis, despite the irreverent acts that we have committed, whether peacefully or violently, such as turning the earth, removing stones, cutting trees where the Nyen dwell, or removing their rock fortresses, we ask you, do not act out of ^v ; jealousy or hatred!
; And you also, the four great classes of Nyen, the sixteen classes of small Nyen, the lords of the soil belonging to the ;. elans of the country, the full complement of Sadak, nigas, and .:. Nyen, be pacified, happy, and healed!
Give us your friendly aid and be vigilant!
. TATHAGATA SARVA-SANTiM KUKUYE SVAl lA . iTwhagaia, make everything pacified.)
who govern the year, the months, the days, and the Ws, the King of the year, the ministers of the months, the
soldiers <>f ^ay, anc! the ar^nies of the hours, lords and ministers of the Sadak, the YoginT, the Lord of Death, Diid Tsenroa, Kikang, Mamakhyi the Celestial Dog.Tsin p.jng. Piling, Tsegyi, Hal Khyi, die Sadik of the twelve-ye«- cyciej Mewas, the Parkhas, the planets, and the lunar constellations, evil spirits of the hours, all of you, pay attention to (his seal of Sipaho!
Do not act out of malevolence or jealousy, be pacified and happy!
OM AKAMNI K.ANJ ABHlLA-MANDALE MANTRALE SVAHA YE DHARMA HETU-PRAHEAVA HETUM TESAM TATHAGATO HYAVADAT TESAM CA YO NIRODHA EVAM VADT MAHA SRAM AN AH SVAHA!
The practice of these prayers is accompanied bv offerings, which may take the form of tormas, colored threads, medicines,, and juniper smoke. These rituals are used to ward off bad astrological configurations, and also against drought or the danger of poor harvests.
Tibetan cosmology is that of the Abhidharnu -tnd the KJlaeafcffc in which the universe is considered at the same time tti j|m£m1 terms and in terms of the realms of existence, it includes oil the levels of samsiric existence, hells, and the most exalted ¿uiw kingdoms. A "great universe" consists of one huoOfid mno t„-n million small universes such as our own—this illustrates the vast sale of Buddhist cosmology. We shall describe here the suue-ture oi our small universe.
Me Small Universe
The small universe con««*..' ' C^T " w>d comments, inhabited by k.h>.I*' »-> ** 1 1 ""
t|)e center is the great asial mountain, Mount Mem. which 1S. structured as a conic section: the Eastern face is made of white crystal, i lie Southern face of blue Japts-lazuli, the Western face oi rubies, and the Northern of emeralds or gold. Its base is located deep below the level of the ocean and its summit reaches into the skies. A fabulous tree grows from its base to its summit. At its base, in ocean caves and rock caves, there live the asuras or jealous gods, whose kingdom consists of four great cities, each ruled bv a king. One of these kings is Rahu, Lord of the Eclipse. The asuras live at the level of the roots of the Wish-fulfilling Tree, and although their lives are pleasant, they can never enjoy the fruits of the tree, whose branches are in the realms of the gods. Consumed by jealousy and ambition, they wage ceaseless war against the god in order to obtain their pleasures. Thev are always vanquished, but they continue to fight.
The first four levels of Mount Meru are inhabited by the nagas, the guardians of treasures, and various classes of demigod occupying the second to fourth levels: Suparnas, Danavas, Rak-sasas and Yaksas. The fifth level is inhabited by the guardian kings of the four directions, who protect the divine realms and the universe against the demons. Dhritirastra, the lui crust, guards the East and rules the people of the Gandharvas, the celestial musicians. Virudhaka, king of the Kumbhandas, with a saber in his right hand, keeps watch over the South. Virupaksa, who is shown holding a stupa, is the guardian of the West and King of the Nagas. Vaisravana, the guardian of the North, holds a banner of victory and a mongoose—he is the King of the Yaksas and keeps watch over the riches of the universe.
The kingdom of the Four Great Kings is the gateway to the divine realms. The devas or gods are divided into three large groups according to their degree of spiritual advancement: the gods of the realm of desire (kamaloka), who are still part of the sensual realm; the gods of the realm of pure form (riipaloka), who are beyond desire but still possess a material body; and the gods of the formless realm (arupaloka), absorbed in the most elevated «nedivation, beyond ail concepts,
. /be gods of desire or k&madevas occupy five different realms:
The Heavens of the Thirty-three, located at the summit of Mount Meru, which is also the site of the palace of Indra, king of the thirty-three gods.
2 The heavens of Yama, the first realm below the summit,
3 The Tusita heavens or ''Heavens of Beatitude," the divine realm in which buddhas dwell before incarnating on earth.
4 The Nimanarati heavens, inhabited by gods "who create their own pleasures."
5 The Paramrmita heavens, inhabited by the gods "who arrange the creation of others." This is the summit of the desire realm.
The gods of pure form, the Rupavacaras, have luminous bodies of great beauty. Their heavens are celestial material realms composed of the essence of the five elements. Their chief is Brahma, They are divided into 17 or 18 kingdoms and thetrhkr:-archy reflects the four levels of meditative absorption, the four dhyaoas. The highest of these heavens is Akanista or "tfee-uiK equaled."
The formless gods are "pure spirits," consciousness absorbed in the highest meditation, and they are divided into four realms depending on their meditative attainment Tins is the highest level that can be attained in samsara.
All the devas are very long-lived, their life spa« being proportional to their level of attainment. The gods of the Heaven of the Thirty-three live for 1,000 years, and each dav in this realm is equal to 100 years in the human realm. The iusita gods live ror +,000 years of like duration. The Parmu'tnira gods live for 560,000 years, and each day is equivalent to I ¡>,000 Immin years. THe life span ;tl the fal m rt-.iiut-S ranges horn lo.OCO hlpas to «ie quarter of a great kalpa. in the warm-, ...n%ouu-.
n«s is absorbed in meditation r.n srt«wr 70.J:C .md SO.OJO
great kalpas. Although these pet tods of rime -itv almost uko-i «ivable, none of the gods is ¡».u>o,tal \i ik cod -f the- hv^ |"ey are condemned u> tebuth in another a-alm. like ail oilu-r ei«g$, because ihey arc subject to the law or karma.
Around the foot of Mount Merti there are walls formed hy seven tour-sided golden mountains, each half the height of the one behind it. Between these walls are located the seven square Sitas, lakes whose pure water is endowed with eight perfect qualities: lightness, luminosity, clarity, purity, freshness, sweetness and perfect taste and scent.
The whole is surrounded by a great ocean of salt water, which supports the continents.
In each of the cardinal directions, there is an island continent surrounded hy two smaller continents. There are thus twelve continents in total. At the East is Videha (Lti Pakpo), surrounded bv Dehu (Ltt) and Videha (£« pak), This continent is white and shaped like a half-moon. The people who live there are twice as tall as us and their faces resemble half-moons. They are peaceful vegetarians and live in towns and villages. Their life span is between 250 and 500 years. Although their lives are pleasant, it is not greatly advisable to be reborn in their realm since they do not have the true Dharma. The chief characteristic of Videha is its mountain of diamonds, lapis-lazuli, saphires, emeralds, pearls, gold, silver, and crystal.
In the South is Jumbudvipa (Dzambulmg), our own continent, surrounded by Camara (Nga yap) and Upacamara (Ngtyap "¿hen). Our world is a fortunate one, where buddhas are born and the Dharma flourishes, ft is blue and trapezoidal in shape. Its inhabitants have a life span of a century. Its main feature is the thicket of trees that accomplish all desires and whose fruiti fall as rain.
[n the West is the continent of Godaniya (Nub pa tangcho hr.yj, surrounded by Shatha ( Yoden) and Uttaratnantnni (Lam-chok dra), Godaniya is ruby red and circular in shape. Its inhabitants have round faces and they are four times as tall as us. They live for five centuries and foilow a pastoral life, living on the dairy produce of their beasts. Its mam feature is the herd of wish-fulfilling heifers, each of whose udders give all that desired.
To rhc North lies Uttarakuru (Draminym Ling), surrounde
Kurava (Drammyen) and Karuava (Drammyen gyt Da), The Northern continent is green and square. Its inhabitants are giants, ^¡th square faces "like those of horses." They live in great abun-dan« for more than a thousand years, without effort or worry, for the iand is very rich. They live on cereals that grow spontaneously, and they do not for a moment feel the need to wear clothes or build shelters, towns, or villages. But Draminyen means "with an unpleasant voice"; and indeed, a week before they die, the inhabitants of Draminyen hear the grating voice of death, which announces to them the way m which thev will die and what sort of bad rebirth awaits them. Their suffering then exceeds what we undergo in a whole lifetime. The main, attribute, of this continent is the cereal that grows without eftort, an inexhaustible and delicious food.
Although they are all inhabited by humans, these eootmeaB; remain invisible to the eyes of the inhabitants of other worlds; except for clairvoyants, Jambudvipa is the only one m which buddhas appear in perceptible form and it is said to be the best place in which to be born.
Beyond the continents, the great external ocean reache* as Uf: as the iron mountains that surround the universe. CakrmU, The entire universe rests on a base of gold.
In the depths of the continent of Jambudvipa are the Ivlis.; There are eight levels of hot hells on top of each other. From top to bottom, these are the Reviving Heli, the Hell of Brack LintiSj, Mass Destruction, Lamentation, Great lamentation. He.«, Extreme Heat, and the Avici .Hell or Vajra HeH, who«: tortures are unimaginable.
The Longhchen Nymgtik describes the hot hell* -is follows
If t am horn in the heil realms, mi an <.\u'd< •>* i,tH my head and body will be -Lp.i "aI I' body will be ripped apart with * tv.s and crushed by ?w«IiI)lirY <>f burning metal. I will call • -i- toi -nip » ■ m" %'J|1 '' i;'1s imprisoned b an iron htius.- i>idi>>i'i li'1!1"- 1 "-'I '< hwd on burning, raaoi iturpsuk« 5 "' l,v,1"U
There are also eight cold hells, tiered in the same way and located next to the hot hells, under the iron mountains of Cakra-vala. These are called Pustules, Bursting Pustules, Groaning Great Groaning, Trembling, Blue Lotus, Lotus, and Great Lotus,
In the great snow-covered mountains, in narrow crevasses and glaciers, 1 will be swept by the torment of snow. Battered by a glacial wind, ray tender flesh will be covered with blisters and bursting ulcerations. My lamentations and moanings will be endless. Enduring the sensation of intolerable pain, like a sick man close to death whose strength is exhausted, I will cry out from behind clenched teeth, my skin will crack, my flesh coming out of wounds where the skin is deeply cleft. Such are the eight cold hells.
Finally, there are four peripheral hells located around Avici:
In a field of razors, my feet will be chopped and my body will be torn apart in a forest of swords. 1 will be sucked into the mire of the swamp of rotting corpses and I will suffer in an expanse of burning ashes. These are the peripheral hells surrounding the unimaginable hell.
The diffused hells have no specific location: "Imprisoned in doors, pillars, hearths, and ropes, I will be endlessly used and . exploited. Such are the diffused hells."
The karmic causes of birth in the hell realms are principally anger, hatred, murder, and suicide. Although extremely long, residence in these worlds of suffering is in no case eternal.
The pre las or hungry ghosts, constantly tortured by hunger, thiria,.exhaustion, and hallucinations, live in underground cities or in the realm ol Yam.;, or death, while others are scattered throughout the universe. ■ Animals live in all the continents of the universe.
Stti.li is the Buddhist view of the world.
, „¡verses are not eternal—they have a beginning and an ¡n 0rder to express the duration of these periods, the Bud-Cn- use the concept of kalpa. The Mahakalpa is the unit of that measures the life of a universe, from its formation to ■'""destruction. A Mahakalpa comprises four medium kalpas, ^presenting the four phases of the evolution of a great universe: formation, endurance, destruction, and void. Each medium kalpa is divided into twenty lesser kalpas.
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