than 5o in Luxor. In the same time, the brightness of Mercury was very low M = +3.3, so it wasn't possible to observe Mercury in these conditions. On the last day of the solution, which was April 26, 1168 A.D., the submersion of the Sun was 6o in Cairo, and not more than 7o in Luxor. At that time the brightness of Mercury was little bit higher (M = +2.1) but still insufficient for the visibility in such conditions. Consequently, Mercury was invisible at all the days of the solution, and we can conclude that in this solution, Mercury must be represented by the two-faced figure between Aries and Taurus. Recall that the figure of Mercury on the zodiac has no star over his head, which means it was in an invisible position. Moreover, the position of Mercury in the solution was in the middle of Aries, what ideally corresponds to the location of this figure on the Long Zodiac. In this case, the second figure of Mercury should either belong to the partial horoscope of the summer solstice, in which area it is shown, or it simply represents a separate supplementary astronomical scene. Notice, that such scenes are present on the Long zodiac. For example, there is a scene, that we will discuss below, showing Mars on a goose approaching Saturn. In any case in this solution, the second figure of Mercury can not belong to the main horoscope, because on April 22-26, 1168, Mercury stayed in Aries, while the second Mercury is shown in Taurus. Moreover the second one is not on the same side of the Sun as in the solution. That means, the second figure of Mercury should be included in the other category of the check-up list. We closed this column with an encircled sign plus to signal that all these condition are fully satisfied by the solution.
Column 2: VISIBILITY OF VENUS. On the Long zodiac, the figure representing Venus has a star over its head, which means it was visible. On all the days included in the solution, Venus was clearly visible in the morning. On April 22, 1168, when Venus was rising, the submersion of the Sun was SUH=10o in Cairo, and the brightness of Venus was high M = -2.8, so Venus was very well visible. On April 26, 1168, which is the last day of the solution, the visibility conditions were even better. The submersion of the Sun was SUH=12o and the brightness of Venus was M = -3.7. That means Venus was perfectly well visible in the mornings on all days specified in the solution, its location was in the middle of Aries, while Mercury was also in Aries not far from Venus, on the Taurus side. This configuration corresponds perfectly to the astronomical picture on the Long zodiac. Again, we marked this column with the plus sign to show that the specified condition was satisfied.
Column 3: PARTIAL HOROSCOPE OF THE AUTUMN EQUINOX. The variant of the beginning of the Egyptian year was determined through the verification process. It turned out that it was in September, so the year related to the solution started in September 1167, and ended by September 1168 (see section 5.11). This choice of the beginning of the year fits well not only the Long zodiac, but practically all the Egyptian zodiacs (with one exception). Therefore, the autumn equinox for this solution occurred in September 1167.
Let us remark that we can not expect from the creators of the Long zodiac, a precise determination of the dates of the equinoxes and solstices. It is not an easy task and even in the 14th century the errors of up to six days were made20. The exact date of the autumn equinox in the year 1167 was on September 11-12 (see Appendix 3). By assuming a six days margin of error, we obtain the interval September 5-18, 1167 for checking the planetary positions in the partial horoscope of the autumn equinox. The six day discrepancy from the exact date of the autumn equinox is significant only for Moon and possibly for Mercury. With respect to other planets (which are relatively slow) these few days make no difference.
Let us indicate the planetary positions in the period September 13-15, 1167 (see Table 7.2):
Using Turbo-Sky program we've calculated that the New Moon appeared on September 17, 1167, at the distance 0.5o from Venus. It became visible in the evening on September 17, when it moved a little bit away from Venus, but it was still very close to it (see Figure 7.17).
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