Figure 7.14: Fragment of the Long Denderah zodiac with the partial horoscope of the winter solstice.
Figure 7.14: Fragment of the Long Denderah zodiac with the partial horoscope of the winter solstice.
Right behind Virgo, there is standing its second decan, which is endowed with planetary elements of the partial horoscope. It's easy to notice that this figure is different from the other decan-girls (see subsection 5.5.1). It has a lioness head, which we already know is the symbol of Venus. This is not surprising, because Venus is not far from the Sun, so usually it is present in the partial horoscopes. This decan has also a crescent placed on its head, what means that the Moon appeared nearby of the autumn equinox. This picture suggests that the Moon was in proximity of Venus, because the lioness head and the crescent are connected. The other interpretation of the crescent as a symbol of Saturn has to be rejected, because it would contradict the position of Saturn in the main horoscope (see subsection 5.5.1). Right beside the head of this decan-girl, there is a bird-sun. Similar birds appear in several different places on the Long zodiac, which indicate additional symbolism related to the Sun (see subsection 5.9.2). There are no other additional planetary symbols in this location, even in the partially destroyed part of the zodiac. In particular, there is no indication of Mercury in this partial horoscope. Since Mercury is always close to the Sun, its absence here can only be explained by its invisibility on the equinox date. In conclusion, on the date of the autumn equinox Venus and Moon were visible not very far from the Sun, which was in Virgo, Mercury wasn't visible, and there were no other visible planets in proximity of Virgo.
[B] Partial Horoscope of the Winter Solstice: There is abundance of information in this partial horoscope on the Long zodiac (see Figure 7.14), which is located in Sagittarius. The figure of Sagittarius is represented as a complex "astronomical hieroglyph" (see subsection 5.8.2 and Figure 5.68) incorporating the symbols of Sun, Mercury and Venus. In the process of the dating such an "astronomical hieroglyph" does not provide any useful information and it has always the same standard form. However, on the Long zodiac there are other planetary symbols in this partial horoscope, which supply us with non-trivial additional information. Let us first discuss one by one all the symbols standing on the left from Sagittarius. Preceding the last decan of Sagittarius, there is a scene of killing a bull (see section 5.9), which appears in a standard form on many Egyptian zodiacs. Further from Sagittarius, there is the fist decan of Capricorn with a "bird-sun" near its head. The bird has a crescent on its head. This symbol was applied by the author of the zodiac to indicate the special positions of the Sun on the ecliptic, in particular to signal there the presence of additional information. Indeed, right behind this decan there is a female figure resting her planetary walking stick on the back of Capricorn (see Figure 7.14). Here, this female figure is not a decan (see section 5.2), and the planetary walking stick in her hand indicates that she represents a planet. As it is a female, it must be Venus. The presence of a pull-out attribute (the walking stick is placed on Capricorn), means that it doesn't belong to the main horoscope, so we have here Venus in the partial horoscope of the winter solstice. Regarding the figure of a bird with a crescent on its head, there are two possibilities. It could symbolize either a crescent of Moon or Saturn. In the second case, the position of Saturn in the main horoscope (in Aquarius or Capricorn) does not contradicts this interpretation.
Let us now move to the right side of Sagittarius. The first two figures are a decan of Sagittarius and a decan of Scorpio. Next, there is a wolf standing on a scythe, which is another standard scene (see subsection 5.9.2), accompanied by a "bird-sun" wearing a crown. Further to the right, there is Scorpio, and then an imaginary figure of a half-man half-animal holding two bowls in its hands. The precise meaning of this symbol is unclear, but there are similar symbols with the same bowls on the Small Esna zodiac in the partial horoscopes area (see subsection 7.5.3). Finally, there are two decans of Scorpio. One of them is typical but the other one has a special feature — it has a falcon head. We already met such a modified decan in the partial horoscope of autumn equinox, where its lioness
head denoted Venus. Since the falcon-headed planetary figure in the main horoscope was recognized as Mars, this attribute symbolizes Mars in this partial horoscope.
Consequently, we can assume that on the winter solstice day Mars was in Scorpio or in Libra. The most likely it was on the boundary between Scorpio and Libra (notice that it is incorporated into the last decan of Libra). However, Mars in this position is equally distant from Sagittarius as it is from Virgo, so it could belong to the partial horoscope of the autumn equinox instead.
In conclusion, the partial horoscope of the winter solstice is as follows: Venus and Saturn (or Moon) in Capricorn, Mercury somewhere close to the Sun, which is in Sagittarius, but without clearly specified position, and Mars in Scorpio not far from Libra or in Libra. There were no other planets around the Sun on this day. In the case Mars wasn't there on the winter solstice day, it was in this location on the autumn equinox day.
[C] Partial Horoscope of the Spring Equinox: On the Long zodiac the spring equinox is indicated by a rectangular plate with wavy lines placed in Pisces. The only candidate for a planetary symbol in this partial horoscope is the large circle with a male figure inside, but only in the case this symbol turns out not to be a part of the main horoscope. On the color annotated zodiac (see Figure 7.12) we marked this figure with two colors (light-blue and yellow), to indicate that it could belong either to the main or partial horoscope. There is no other candidate for a planet in this partial horoscope available, because all the figures around Pisces were already recognized as either planets of the main horoscope, or typical decans without any modification. In the case this circle is related to the partial horoscope, it is definitely the Sun. Otherwise, there wouldn't be a partial horoscope here without a symbol of the Sun — its central planet. Regarding the male figure offering an animal inside this circle, it could be a planetary symbol, but without additional attributes it could be any planet except Venus. The only information that we can extract from this symbol is that probably the closest or closest visible planet to the Sun was a male planet.
[D] Partial Horoscope of the Summer Solstice: The figure representing Gemini is an "astronomical hieroglyph" incorporating the Sun, Mercury and Venus symbols (see subsection 5.8.4 and Figure 5.71). The partial horoscope is placed on the left from of Gemini. Let us discuss one by one all the figures standing in this area. Right beside Gemini, there is the first decan of Cancer looking into the opposite direction. Further, there are the usual symbols of the summer solstice: a man with a raised hand standing on a boat, and a "bird-sun" sitting on a pole. These both symbols represent the Sun in summer solstice (see subsection 5.8.4). The fact that the girl-decan is turned back should not be overlooked. This is the only decan standing this way to indicate that the whole scene in front of her (on the left) belongs to Gemini. If she stood in the same way as all the other decans, this scene would belong to Cancer. We will see that the order of figures in this scene is also reversed. On the first boat there are two female figures, one of them holds a planetary walking stick with a handle, while the other one holds in her raised hands two bowls from which she pours water. There is a similarly to Aquarius. As there is only one female planet, this symbol indicates Venus. On the next boat there is a lying bull, which is a usual symbol of the summer solstice, and then, there is a pole with a sun-bird wearing a crown sitting on its top. Finally, in the last boat there is a man with a raised hand holding a planetary walking stick. This symbol represents the Sun at the summer solstice. The presence of a companion of Venus with Aquarius attributes and the bull, which is the symbol of Taurus, suggest the reversed orientation of this scene on the ecliptic. That means Venus was in Taurus or in its proximity. In conclusion, Venus was in Taurus or in its vicinity, the exact position of Mercury is not specified, and there were no other planets in the proximity of the Sun on the summer solstice day.
7.2.4 Final Solution for the Long Zodiac: April 22-26, 1168 AD.
Step 3. (See subsection 6.7.3) In this step we validated all the preliminary dates for the Long zodiac obtained in Step 2. It was done manually using the program Turbo Sky written by A.V. Volynkin, however, there are many other good astronomical programs that can be used for this purpose (see for example the site at: http://www.seds.org/billa/astrosoftware.html. In this process we examined the planetary positions, the visibility of the planets, and compatibility with the data contained in the partial horoscopes. During this verification all the possibilities for the beginning of the Egyptian year were considered. A precise description of the validation procedure was described in section 6.7. At the end of the selection process we were left with only one complete astronomical solution (i.e. a solution, which passed all the tests): April 22-26, 1168 A.D. This date indicate the epoch more than thousand years later than claimed by Egyptologists18. In the next section we will see that the second zodiac from the same Denderah temple, i.e. the Round Denderah zodiac, shows the date only 17 years different from it. There is another date closely indicating the second half of the twelve century. It's the date (1182 A.D.) shown on the Color Thebes zodiac (OU), which we will analyze and date in Chapter 8. We would like to point out that in spite of the fact that these dates drastically contradict Scaliger's chronology of Egypt, they ideally fit into the new reconstructed chronology of the global history (see , , , ).
Let us present the variant of the decoding that led to the full astronomical solution for the Long zodiac:
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The pathology of the poet says that the undevout astronomer is mad the pathology of the very plain man says that the genius is mad and between these extremes, which stand for ten thousand analogous excesses, the sovereign reason takes the part of a moderator and does what it can. I do not think that there is a pathology of the occult dedications, but about their extravagances no one can question, and it is not less difficult than thankless to act as a moderator regarding them.