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Sun

Moon

Saturn

Jupiter

Mars

Venus

Mercury

281.8° 8.44

304.2° 9.09

314.1° 9.45

332.0° 10.14

240.5° 7.13

323.0° 9.77

298.0° 8.90

Table 7.3: Planetary Positions in the Period December 14-15, 1167

Table 7.3: Planetary Positions in the Period December 14-15, 1167

As usual, the same positions are given twice. In the first row, we show the longitude in degrees on the ecliptic J2000, and in the second row the same positions according to the constellation scale

By using Turbo-Sky, we obtained that on December 15, 1167, in Cairo, the New Moon appeared in Capricorn. At that day, at the evening twilight, an extremely bright Venus (M = -4.1) and relatively bright Saturn (M = 1.6), were also visible in Capricorn. Bright Mercury (M = +0.4) could be seen near horizon in Sagittarius, and there were no other planets in the evening twilight zone. Before the dawn, only Mars was visible on the boundary between Scorpio and Libra. It was sufficiently far from the Sun and rather bright (M = +1.6), so it was very well visible. The twilight sky on this day in Cairo is shown on Figure 7.18. This configuration of planets around the Sun corresponds exactly to the picture of the partial horoscope of the winter solstice on the Long zodiac: Venus and Saturn or/and the Moon in Capricorn, Mercury somewhere close to the Sun, which is in Sagittarius, but without clearly specified position, and Mars in Scorpio, not far from Libra or in Libra.

Consequently, we can annotate this column with the plus sign to indicated that considered here requirements are all satisfied.

Column 5: PARTIAL HOROSCOPE OF THE SPRING EQUINOX. In 1168, the spring equinox occurred on March 13 (see Appendix 3), which was very close date to the date of the main horoscope in this solution. We consider, as the spring equinox days, the interval March 7-20, 1168, which is exactly 6

Figure 7.18: A drawing showing planets in the proximity of the Sun on December 15, 1167 (the day of appearing of the New Moon) at 4:00 GMT and 15:50 GMT. The sky under the horizon is marked in blue.

days around the equinox date. Let us present the positions of the planets near the Sun on the day of the New Moon on March 12, 1168 (see Table 7.4).

Julian day (JD) = 2147741.00 Year/Month/Day = 1168/3/12

Sun

Moon

Saturn

Jupiter

Mars

Venus

Mercury

370.4° 11.60

383.6° 11.93

324.1° 9.80

352.3° 11.14

301.9° 9.01

48.9° .90

380.8° 11.86

Table 7.4: Planetary Positions on March 12, 1168

Table 7.4: Planetary Positions on March 12, 1168

Since the spring equinox day happened so closely to the date of the main horoscope, which was April 22-26, 1168, all the planets at that time (except the Sun and Moon) were still near in the same positions as on the main date. Maybe, because of it, the partial horoscope of the spring equinox on the Long zodiac is very laconic. There is only shown the Sun as a big circle in Pisces.

Before the dawn on March 12, 1168, at the moment Jupiter was rising, the submersion of the Sun was 15o, so Jupiter was very well visible. Its brightness was maximal (M = -1.5) and it was located in Pisces, i.e. in the same constellation as the Sun. At the evening twilight, Venus (M = -4.9) and Mercury (M = -0.1) were visible. Their brightness was almost maximal. Venus was in Aries and Mercury in Pisces. At the moment Mercury was crossing the horizon, the submersion of the Sun was about 11o, thus Mercury was definitely visible. At that time the distance from Venus to the Sun was almost maximal — about 40o. In the evening on March 13, 1168, the New Moon appeared on the boundary between Pisces and Aries. However, on the Long zodiac, the partial horoscope of the spring equinox consists solely of a big disc representing the Sun with a male figure inside making an offering of an animal. On the Round Denderah zodiac we also have a similar situation, where the partial horoscope of the spring equinox contains only a disc of the Sun. These two cases suggest that the spring equinox was represented differently from other solstice and equinoxes points. We will see later, on other examples, that it was typical for Egyptian zodiacs to practically ignore the partial horoscope of the spring equinox.

In relation to the presence of additional figure inside the disc of the Sun (in the partial horoscope of the spring equinox) on each of the two Denderah zodiacs, we notice that it is a male figure on the Long zodiac and a female figure on the Round zodiac. The most probably, this figure represents a planet, which at that time was making "offering" to the Sun. On the Long zodiac, this disc of the Sun almost touches the figure of Jupiter in the main horoscope, what suggests that Jupiter was the planet making an "offering," and indeed, Jupiter was the brightest planet visible near the Sun on the equinox day. Of course Venus as always was much brighter than Jupiter, but it was also much further away from the Sun (40o for Venus and 15o for Jupiter). In the case of the Round zodiac, the brightest planet near the Sun on the spring equinox day, was Venus, which matches the female figure inside the disc. Consequently, the astronomical situation at the spring equinox fits well the symbolism on the Long zodiac, so we can annotate the fifth column with the sign plus.

Column 6: PARTIAL HOROSCOPE OF THE SUMMER SOLSTICE. In the year 1168, the summer solstice occurred on June 12. As before, we extend the time interval of the summer solstice by 6 days from each side, i.e. we consider as the summer solstice dates June 6-18, 1168. In this case, the time difference between June 6 and June 18 can have an impact only on the position of the Moon.

Let us list the positions of the planets on the ecliptic on one of the summer solstice days, for example June 14, 1168 (see Table 7.5).

Using the program Turbo-Sky, we found that the New Moon appeared in Cancer on June 9, 1168. The positions of the planets near the Sun, as it was observed from Cairo on June 8, 1168, are shown

Julian day (JD) = 2147835.00 Year/Month/Day = 1168/6/14

Sun

Moon

Saturn

Jupiter

Mars

Venus

Mercury

101.1° 2.40

194.0° 5.47

327.1° 9.91

369.0° 11.56

366.1° 11.49

55.9° 1.11

99.5° 2.34

Table 7.5: Planetary Positions on June 14, 1168

Table 7.5: Planetary Positions on June 14, 1168

on Figure 7.19. This drawing was made with a help of the program Turbo-Sky. It illustrates the sky around the summer solstice point with the morning horizon for June 8, 1168, indicated. Before the dawn on all these summer solstice days Venus, which was located on the boundary between Aries and Taurus, was very bright (M = -4.7) and well visible. On June 8, 1168, bright Mercury (M = 0.0) could be still visible in Taurus, but the next day it disappeared in the sunlight. No other planetaround the Sun, except Moon, was visible during the summer solstice days, neither before the dawn nor at the evening.

Let us recall that on the Long zodiac, in the partial horoscope of the summer solstice, Venus was in Taurus or in its vicinity, the exact position of Mercury was not specified, and there were no other planets in the proximity of the Sun. Moreover, the second figure representing Mercury, according to the solution, doesn't belong to the main horoscope, so it should be an element of the partial horoscope of the summer solstice. In this case the position of Mercury can be described as located in between Taurus and Gemini. Indeed, the figure of the second Mercury stands just behind Taurus, preceding the first decan of Gemini (see Figures 7.11 and 7.12). On the other hand, Venus on the Long zodiac is represented by a couple of female figures on a boat (see Figures 7.11 and 7.12) at the very end of the zodiac. As it is located much further from Gemini than Mercury (remember that this part of the Long zodiac has reversed order), Venus was probably somewhere around Taurus.

In the solution, Venus is located on the boundary between Aries and Taurus. As we can see, all the details related to the positions of the planets on the partial horoscope are in the exact correspondence with the astronomical situation according to the solution. The only discrepancy could be the absence of the Moon in the partial horoscope. However, it is not unusual, even quite common, that the Moon wasn't shown on the Egyptian zodiacs in the partial horoscopes. Let us point out that the New Moon in the summer solstice days appeared on the evening sky in Cancer, but the area corresponding to Cancer was not displayed on the partial horoscope (see subsection 7.2.3(D)), where only the morning sector between Taurus and Aries was included. This was possible to achieve by reversing the order of the procession on the left from Gemini (see subsection 7.2.3(D)). In summary, we can conclude that we have a full correspondence between the solution and the partial horoscope of the summer solstice, thus we can again annotate the sixth column with the plus sign.

Figure 7.19: A drawing showing planets in the proximity of the Sun on June 8, 1168. The sky under the horizon is marked in blue.

That completes the comparison of the solution with the data provided by the partial horoscopes. There are only supplementary scenes left.

Column 7: SUPPLEMENTARY SCENE OF THE PASCHAL FULL MOON. We've already discussed in section 5.9 that some Egyptian zodiacs have a special representation of the Paschal Full Moon in the year related to the main date. The first Full Moon after the spring equinox, i.e. the Paschal Full Moon, occurred on March 26, 1168, in Libra. On the Long zodiac, on the left side of Libra there is located the last (fourth) circle, which still remains unexplained. This circle almost touches Libra. There is a female figure holding a long stick in both hands. This circle ideally fits the Paschal Full Moon and the figure inside very well agrees with the description of Passover given in the Bible: "And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the Lord's Passover,"21 so the person standing with a walking stick (or stuff) is a good symbol for Passover.

As we were able to associate a reasonable explanation with the forth circle, we can annotate this column with plus.

Column 8: OTHER SUPPLEMENTARY SCENES. The last supplementary scene, that we are considering, is the figure of Mars standing on a goose. It is located in between the first decan of Aquarius and the third decan of Capricorn, at the very end of the zodiac. In this scene Mars makes an impression of approaching Saturn. However, here there is no new information to be obtained. Saturn moves very slowly and during the whole year its position changes so little that the same figure on the zodiac could describe all of them. In the same time Mars is relatively fast planet, and by knowing its position in the main horoscope, which was in between Pisces and Aquarius, we can be certain that at some moment during that year it passed Saturn.

Nevertheless, this particular information fits exceptionally well the solution, because on April 16, 1168, when Mars was passing Saturn the distance between them (in latitude) was only 40' (this value was calculated using Turbo-Sky). Let us notice that this meeting took place just 6 days before the date of the main horoscope, and possibly that's why this scene was included in the Long zodiac.

So, we've managed to verify that the solution satisfies all the additional information on the Long zodiac, and in result, we determined that this solution is a full (complete) solution. No other full solution was found for any admissible variant of decoding of the Long zodiac (see subsection 7.2.2).

CONCLUSION: The Long Denderah zodiac represents the date April 22-26, 1168 AD.

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