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Sun

Moon

Saturn

Jupiter

Mars

Venus | Mercury

368.9° 11.56

380.8° 311.86

327.9° 9.94

317.0° 9.95

62.4° 1.28

377.6° 11.78

365.7° 11.48

Pisces

Pisces

Cap/Aqua 1 Capric

Taurus | Pisces

Pisces

Table 7.19: Planetary Positions on March 12, 1404

Table 7.19: Planetary Positions on March 12, 1404

border with Sagittarius. The location of Mercury was either in Pisces or in Aquarius. Our solution agrees well with this partial horoscope. Indeed, Mercury on March 12, 1404 was in Pisces — as it is indicated on the Small zodiac. On that day, in Capricorn, there was a very bright planet — Jupiter. Around the Sun there were no other planets except Mercury and Venus. However, it is somehow strange that Saturn is missing from this partial horoscope, while Jupiter, that was also quite far from Pisces, is present there. One can guess from the design of the Small zodiac that its author, for some unknown to us reasons, decided to extend this partial horoscope by one planet located in Capricorn. In our solution, this planet is Jupiter. Notice that in order to incvlude this planetary figure in the area between Capricorn and Sagittarius, the author of the zodiac placed also the symbol of the spring equinox on a snake — a pull-out symbol. We do not know what was the exact idea behind this design, which is very unusual for the Egyptian zodiacs. Saturn is understandably missing from this partial horoscope because it was already too far from Pisces, so there is no reason to consider this detail as significant. Consequently, we can confirm that our solution agrees with required here conditions, and we can annotate the column 4 with the plus sign.

Column 5: PARTIAL HOROSCOPE OF THE SUMMER SOLSTICE. In the year 1404, the summer solstice occurred on June 11 (see Appendix 3). In Table 7.20 we list the planetary positions on the ecliptic on the summer solstice day on June 11, 1404.

Julian day (JD) = 2234031.0 Year/Month/Day = 1404/6/11

Sun

Moon

Saturn 1 Jupiter

Mars

Venus

Mercury

96.8° 2.25

137.6° 3.76

331.8° 10.13

324.7° 9.83

120.4° 3.07

128.6° 3.40

78.8° 1.72

Gemini | Cancer | Aquar | Capric | Can/Gemi

Gemini

Taurus

Table 7.20: Planetary Positions on June 11, 1404

Table 7.20: Planetary Positions on June 11, 1404

The Sun was in Gemini, accompanied, as usual, by Venus in Gemini and Mercury in Taurus. Moreover, Mars was located on the border between Gemini and Cancer. There were no other planets around this area. We do not consider the Moon, because on the Small zodiac it was not included in the partial horoscopes.

Let as recall the partial horoscope of the summer solstice represented on the Small zodiac. Besides the minimal horoscope, composed of Venus and Mercury, around Gemini is also shown Mars. It was located either in Gemini or between Cancer and Gemini. The second possibility would occur if the warrior with raised sword, located next to Cancer, was also representing Mars. We should, however, remember that this figure of the warrior does not belong to the partial horoscope of the autumn equinox for our solution. That means, that it must be included in the partial horoscope of the summer solstice. In this way, Mars in this partial horoscope is shown on the border between Gemini and Cancer. Consequently, we get a perfect match and we can annotate this column with the plus sign.

Column 6: SYMBOLIC DESCRIPTION OF THE PASCHAL FULL MOON. On the Small Esna zodiac, a special attention is devoted to the Paschal Full Moon and the festival of Pascha. We have already discussed this topic in subsection 5.9.1. Let us point out that on the Small zodiac the festival of Pascha is shown as a celebration of the Resurrection, exactly in the Christian tradition.

The festival of Pascha takes place in the spring when the Sun is in Aries or close to it. The symbolic description of the Paschal Full Moon on the Small zodiac is located in its bottom row, under the figures of Aries and Taurus. On the color annotated zodiac (see Figure 7.42) these symbols are marked in green. They include: 1) appearance of the new Paschal Moon, 2) occurrence of the full Paschal Moon on the 15th day, 3) the symbol of dead Osiris (the Egyptian Christ) in this grave, before the resurrection, and finally, 4) the symbol of the seven day celebration of the resurrection. All these symbols were already discussed in subsection 5.9.1.

The first astronomical spring full moon in 1404, which can be computed using the Gauss' formulas, occured on March 27. However, the paschal moon, according to the calculations of the Easter date, which does not necessarily coincide with the astronomical full moon, occured on March 29. On this day, according to the Christian Easter tradition, there was also Jewish Pascha. The Christian Easter in 1404 was celebrated on March 30. That means, May 8, 1404, which is the date indicated by our solution, was exactly 40 days after Easter, and May 7, 1404, which is also the date of our solution, was 40 days after Jewish Pascha (according to the Christian tradition). Let us point out that the Orthodox church celebrates the Feast of Ascension, exactly 40 days after Easter. Consequently, the date commemorated on the Small zodiac turns out to be the date of the Feast of Ascension in 1404. This could be probably the reason why on this zodiac, there is so much place devoted to the festival of Pascha. In this way, we are able to confirm that our final solution fits well the symbolic description of the Pascha on the Small zodiac, so we can annotate the sixth column by the sign plus.

In this way, we are getting additional reasons to suspect that the supplementary scene with four planets, which is located in the middle row in Capricorn, is related to one of the principal Christian festival — Epiphany, which commemorates the Baptism of Jesus Christ. Let us point out that Epiphany, according to the Julian calendar is celebrated on January 6th, when the Sun is in Capricorn. On the other hand, as we've already mentioned it earlier, the symbol of Aquarius standing next to Capricorn, probably symbolizes John the Baptist on the Egyptian zodiacs. Epiphany is a festival dedicated to John the Baptist who baptized Jesus Christ.

Let us look closely at the situation in Capricorn on January 6, 1404 — the astronomical solution, which was the day of celebration of Epiphany. Were there located four planets on that day? It turns out that yes, they were!

Column 7: SUPPLEMENTARY SCENE BETWEEN AQUARIUS AND CAPRICORN. The chart of the sky observed from Cairo on January 6, 1404 is shown on Figure 7.45. We can see that on that day there were indeed four planets in Capricorn: Saturn, Venus, Mercury and Jupiter. All the other planets were far away from Capricorn — Mars was in Pisces and Moon in Virgo. Moreover, among these four planets only Saturn was well visible in the evening on January 6th. At the moment Saturn descended on the horizon, the Sun was submerged behind the horizon about 16o, i.e. it was almost complete darkness at that time. When the Sun is 18o behind the horizon, we can consider it as the beginning of the night. Let us point out that the brightest stars are already visible when the Sun is submerged only 6o. The brightness of Saturn on January 6, 1404, was M = +1.1, which can be compared to the brightness of stars of the first magnitude. Therefore, Saturn was very well visible on this day.

The remaining planets in Capricorn — Mercury, Jupiter and Venus — were not visible, because of their proximity to the Sun (see Figure 7.45). Jupiter almost coincided with the Sun. Mercury, which was located close to the Sun, had on that day very low brightness of M = +3.4. Consequently, we have to exclude the visibility of Jupiter and Mercury. Actually Venus could be visible for a very short moment, in the morning on January 6, just before the sunrise. Venus was rising in Cairo, when the Sun was submerged behind the horizon only 7o — 8o (for Venus 6o could be enough). At that moment the sky was becoming illuminated by the raising Sun and even the brightest stars were already invisible. Venus with its very high brightness M = —3.4 could be visible, but only for a very short time.

Brakdown Ethanol
Figure 7.45: A drawing showing the planetary locations near the Sun on January 6, 1404 — the day of Epiphany.

This situation agrees well with the supplementary scene shown between Aquarius and Capricorn. In this scene on "snakes and boats" the three planets, including the groups of Mercury and Venus, are shown as small figures. The forth planet has significantly larger size. Since in our solution, the three planets disappeared in the rays of the Sun, while the forth one — Saturn, was well visible, we can confirm that this solution agrees well with the supplementary scene on the Small zodiac.

The exact locations of the planets on the ecliptic on January 5-7, 1404, are shown in Table 7.21. We consider here two additional days before and after the day of Epiphany, to find out what were the movements of the planets on the sky on that day.

Julian day (JD) = 2233873.00 Year/Month/Day = 1404/1/5

Sun

Moon

Saturn 1 Jupiter

Mars

Venus

Mercury

301.6°

206.9°

320.2°

302.2°

378.9°

293.9°

303.0°

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