Peculiarities In Development Of Ancient Astronomy

1 The Problems of Historical Chronology 1

1.1 Creation of the Contemporary Chronology of the Ancient Times 2

1.2 Who were the Critics of Scaliger's Chronology 4

1.3 Questionable Authenticity of the Fundamental "Ancient" Manuscripts 8

1.4 Medieval Anachronisms and Measuring Time in the Middle Ages 10

1.5 Vowels in Ancient Manuscripts 11

1.6 The Controversy over Ptolemy's Almagest 12

1.6.1 Coordinate System used in the Almagest 13

1.6.2 North Star as the First Star of the Catalogue Almagest 14

1.6.3 Statistical Analysis of the Star Catalogue Almagest 15

1.7 Peculiarities in Development of Ancient Astronomy 20

1.8 Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Dating Events of Ancient History 21

2 Ancient Egyptian Zodiacs 33

2.1 Egyptian Zodiacs 34

2.2 Why Egyptologists Avoid Astronomical Dating of Egyptian Zodiacs? 52

2.3 Our New Approach to Dating Egyptian Zodiacs 55

2.4 Pictures of Egyptian Zodiacs used for Dating in this Book 56

2.5 Our Abbreviations for Egyptian Zodiacs 66

3 Previous Attempts of Astronomical Dating of Egyptian Zodiacs 67

3.1 History of Dating of the Denderah Zodiacs 68

3.2 Two Esna Zodiacs 73

3.3 Athribis Zodiacs Discovered by Flinders Petrie 75

3.4 Brugsch's Zodiac 80

3.5 Astronomical Dating of Zodiacs by Egyptologists 84

4 New Approach to Decoding of Egyptian Zodiacs 87

4.1 New Approach to Decoding of Egyptian Zodiacs 88

4.2 Equinox and Solstice Points on Egyptian Zodiacs 88

4.3 Egyptian Zodiacs as Astronomical Pictures of the Whole Year Containing the Main Date 93

4.4 Dating of Egyptian Zodiacs with Equal Treatment of all Admissible Decodings ... 95

5 Symbolism on Egyptian Zodiacs and New Complete Decoding 97

5.1 Symbols of Constellations on Egyptian Zodiacs 98

5.1.1 Aries 98

5.1.2 Taurus 98

5.1.4 Cancer 99

5.1.6 Virgo 105

5.1.9 Sagittarius 105

5.1.10 Capricorn 106

5.1.11 Aquarius 106

5.1.12 Pisces 106

5.2 Symbols of Decans and Principal Scale on Egyptian Zodiacs 107

5.2.1 Decans on the Long Denderah Zodiac 107

5.2.2 Principal Scale on Egyptian Zodiacs 108

5.3 Male and Female Figures 110

5.4 Planetary Symbols of the Main Horoscope 110

5.4.1 Planetary Walking Stick 110

5.4.2 Saturn in the Main Horoscope 114

5.4.3 Seth, Anubis and Thoth as Egyptian Symbols of Saturn and Mercury 118

5.4.4 Jupiter in the Main Horoscope 120

5.4.5 Mars in the Main Horoscope 121

5.4.6 Venus in the Main Horoscope 124

5.4.7 Mercury in the Main Horoscope 129

5.4.8 Additional Symbols Associated with Mercury on Egyptian Zodiacs 131

5.4.9 Representation of Mercury in Two Locations on One Horoscope 131

5.4.10 Relation Between Mercury and the Roman God Janus 132

5.4.11 The Sun in the Main Horoscope 132

5.4.12 The Astronomical Meaning of the Egyptian Eye Symbol 135

5.4.13 Moon in the Main Horoscope 137

5.5 Planetary Symbols in Partial Horoscopes 139

5.5.1 First Example: Partial Horoscope of Autumn Equinox on the Long Zodiac . . 140

5.5.2 Second Example: Partial Horoscope of Winter Solstice on the Round Zodiac . 141

5.5.3 Third Example: Partial Horoscope of Summer Solstice on the Lower Athribis Zodiac 142

5.6 Boats, Snakes, and Other Objects Under the Feet of Figures as Pull-Out Symbols . . 143

5.7 Signs of Visibility of Planets in the Main Horoscope 144

5.8 Symbols of Equinoxes and Solstices 145

5.8.1 Symbols of the Autumn Equinox in Virgo 146

5.8.2 Symbols of the Winter Solstice in Sagittarius 147

5.8.3 Symbols of the Spring Equinox in Pisces 150

5.8.4 Symbols of the Summer Solstice in Gemini 150

5.9 Supplementary Astronomical Symbols on Egyptian Zodiacs 154

5.9.1 Paschal Moon 155

5.9.2 Bird-Sun on the Long Denderah Zodiac 157

5.9.3 Symbol of the Twilights 158

5.9.4 Beheading Scenes near Aquarius 158

5.9.5 Meeting of Saturn and Mars on the Long Denderah Zodiac 159

5.9.6 Stabbing of a Bull (Bullfighting) 159

5.9.7 Wolf on a Scythe 160

5.10 The Places of Astronomical Observations: Cairo and Luxor 160

5.11 Beginning of the Year on the Egyptian Zodiacs 160

6 Method of Astronomical Determination of the Dates Encoded in

Egyptian Zodiacs 163

6.1 Seven Planets of Ancient Astronomy: Zodiacs and Horoscopes 164

6.2 Calculated Horoscopes on the Egyptian Zodiacs 165

6.3 Movement of Planets Among Zodiac Constellations 167

6.4 Partition of the Zodiac Belt into Zodiac Constellations 169

6.5 "Celestial Calendar" and Its Principles 171

6.6 Principal Accuracy of the Computations of the Past Planetary Positions 173

6.7 Dating of Egyptian Zodiacs Based on Contents of the Main and Partial Horoscopes . 175

6.7.1 Step 1: Identification of the Planets in the Main Horoscope with All Possible Variants Considered 175

6.7.2 Step 2: Computation of the Dates for All Variants of Decoding 175

6.7.3 Step 3: Validation of Dates Based on the Precise Planetary Positions, Visibility Attributes, and Partial Horoscopes. Rejection of Incomplete Solutions 176

6.8 Color-Annotated Zodiacs 178

6.9 Conclusive Determination of the Main Date. Final (Complete) Solutions 179

6.10 Constellation-Sized Scale of The Zodiacal Belt 180

6.11 Best Points for the Planets and the Planetary Order 181

6.12 Mean Discrepancy from the Best Points as an Indicator of the Accuracy of the Solution 182

6.13 Example of the Input Data for the Program Horos 182

6.14 Check-up List for an Astronomical Solution 183

7 The Dates Shown on the Monumental Zodiacs in the Denderah and Esna Temples 187

7.1 Denderah and Esna Zodiacs as Parts of the Gigantic Burial Complex in the Great Bend of Nile 188

7.2 Decoding the Date from the Long Denderah Zodiac 190

7.2.1 Constellations Figures on the Long Zodiac 191

7.2.2 Planets in the Main Horoscope on the Long Zodiac 191

7.2.3 Partial Horoscopes on the Long Zodiac 196

7.2.4 Final Solution for the Long Zodiac: April 22-26, 1168 AD 199

7.2.5 Check-up list for the Long Zodiac Final Solution 200

7.3 Decoding the Date from the Round Denderah Zodiac 208

7.3.1 Constellations Figures on the Round Zodiac 210

7.3.2 Planets in the Main Horoscope on the Round Zodiac 211

7.3.3 Partial Horoscopes on the Round Zodiac 214

7.3.4 Final Solution for the Round Zodiac: Morning of March 20, 1185 A.D. ... 217

7.3.5 Checkup List for the Round Zodiac Final Solution 218

7.4 Decoding the Date from the Big Esna Zodiac 224

7.4.1 Constellations and "Constellation Brackets" on the Big Esna Zodiac 225

7.4.2 Planetary Figures in the Main Horoscope on the Big Esna Zodiac 225

7.4.3 Main Horoscope and "Double" Planetary Symbols on the Big Esna Zodiac . 231

7.4.4 Invisibility Attributes on the Big Esna Zodiac 232

7.4.5 Partial Horoscopes on the Big Esna Zodiac 232

7.4.6 Final Solution for the Big Esna Zodiac: March 31 — April 3, 1394 AD. ... 234

7.4.7 Checkup list for the Big Esna Zodiac Final Solution 237

7.5 Decoding the Date from the Small Esna Zodiac 243

7.5.1 Color-Annotated Small Esna Zodiac 244

7.5.2 "Constellations Brackets" in the Planetary Row on the Small Esna Zodiac . . 248

7.5.3 Planetary Figures in the Main Horoscope on the Small Esna Zodiac 250

7.5.4 Partial Horoscopes and Supplementary Scenes on the Small Esna Zodiac . . . 251

7.5.5 Final Solution for the Small Esna Zodiac: May 6—8, 1404 AD 255

7.5.6 Checkup list for the Small Esna Zodiac Final Solution 256

8 The Dates Shown on the Zodiacs form Ancient Egyptian Tombs and Sarcophagi 265

8.1 The Athribis Zodiacs of Flinders Petrie 266

8.1.1 Decoding of the Main Horoscopes: Six Variants for Identification of Planets . 266

8.1.2 Partial Horoscopes and Supplementary Scenes on the Athribis Zodiacs . . . . 272

8.1.3 Results of Computations for Six Variants of Decoding 273

8.1.4 Results of Computations for Six Variants of Decoding with Arbitrary Order of Invisible Planets 275

8.1.5 Final Solutions for the Athribis Zodiacs: the Lower Zodiac — May 15-16, 1230

AD, the Upper Zodiac — February 9-10, 1268 AD 279

8.1.6 Validation of Solutions with Respect to Planetary Positions 280

8.1.7 Validation of Solutions According to the Partial Horoscope of the Summer Solstice 281

8.1.8 Verification of the "Meeting Scene above the Lion" 283

8.1.9 Archaic Beginning of the Year in June on the Athribis Zodiacs 285

8.1.10 Final Identification of the Last Three Planets 286

8.1.11 Stability of the Obtained Solutions 286

8.1.12 Conclusions 287

8.2 Brugsch's Zodiac 287

8.2.1 Annotated Demotic Horoscope on the Brugsch's Zodiac 288

8.2.2 Horoscope "Without Walking Sticks" on Brugsch's Zodiac 290

8.2.3 Horoscope in "Boats" on Brugsch's Zodiac 290

8.2.4 Conclusions 294

8.3 Zodiac of Ramses VII —"Color Thebes Zodiac" 294

8.3.1 Constellation Figures on the Thebes Zodiac 295

8.3.2 Planetary Figures on the Thebes Zodiac 295

8.3.3 The Main Horoscope and Additional Conditions 298

8.3.4 Preliminary Solutions for the Main Horoscope 299

8.3.5 Checking the Supplementary Conditions 300

8.3.6 Conclusion: the Date Encoded in the Color Zodiac was September 5-8, 1182

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