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Figure 3.9: Two fragments of the Athribis zodiacs. (Taken from [107], p. 22)

N.A. Morozov's assumption that the difference between the dates of the two Athribis zodiacs should not exceed thirty years, appears to be a mistake which led Morozov to the wrong result. Further, Morozov writes:

"The figures on the zodiacs are of Hellenistic type but they also show some purely Egyptian features. For example, the Orion constellation (look at the lower part of the Figure) symbolized by a man with his right arm rised in a gesture inviting souls of Meri-Hor and his father Ab-Ne-Mani, whose names were written in hieroglyphs near the symbols of their souls, to come to Heaven.. Their souls were accompanied by their sins symbolized by snakes and jackals on the left side of the painting. Both souls are shown as birds with human heads. The upper horoscope probably belongs to the father and the lower of his son. Probably, both horoscopes indicate the time of their passage to Heaven, not their births. Only in such a case, it was appropriate to show them as birds21".

We intentionally included this long passage from Morozov's book, describing his interpretation of the additional symbols on the Athribis zodiacs, to indicate his erroneous approach based on common understanding of the Egyptian zodiacs as mystic or religious pictures. Morozov declared in haste that those symbols seemed to him unrelated to the main horoscope and having no astronomical meaning. For example, on the Athribis zodiacs he misunderstood an important astronomical information, namely the symbols of the partial horoscopes of the summer solstice (see Figure 3.10), which he categorized as Orion surounded by a mystical entourage.

Figure 3.10: A fragment of the lower Athribis zodiac the symbols of the partial horoscope of the summer solstice. (Taken from [106], Plate 10)

Morozov mistakenly took the figures of the partial horoscopes for the souls of a "father" and his "son," what resulted in a huge impact on the final result. By the way, Morozov himself stressed out that on the Athribis zodiac the planets are represented by birds, but strangely he didn't realize the astronomical meaning of this configuration of figures. Consequently, he lost the essential astronomical data directly related to the problem of dating these two horoscopes. Moreover, this mistake reassured him that the difference between the dates for the both Athribis zodiacs, which he believed belonged to a father and his son, should be not more than thirty years. In fact it was wrong to make such a presupposition. We will show that the difference between the dates for these two zodiacs is 38 years, so they could be related to the birth and death of the same person or to the deaths of two relatives.

Let as look on what Morozov writes further:

Similarly to the case of the Den-derah zodiacs, the dating of this tomb is particularly reliable due to the fact that we are dealing here with two related horoscopes for which their dates are not too distant one from another. In the summer 1919, Professor B.A. Turaev showed me the forth volume of the "British School of Archaeology in Egypt" containing these two horoscopes for the purpose of more accurate determination of their dates by astronomical methods. In the beginning I'd just repeated the calculations of E.B. Knobel, which were presented in the book. Knobel together with Egyptologists identified the bird with a snakelike tail as Jupiter throwing snake-like thunders, the bird with a bull-head as Saturn, the falcon away from the Sun as Mars, the two-faced Janus and the bird without any specific feature located Figure 3.11: Dating of the Athribis zodiac by ER. Knobel. near the Sun, as Mercury and Venus.

My verification showed that Jupiter, in the both horoscopes, appears much too far to the left than it was calculated by Knobel. The same was with Mars. On the other hand, Saturn's

I'llf Dating u) llie Haroscopt» IK If. KNobel.

St Co lid lloiXfSC'lf*.

GWrsnlfbii

Moon io Gemini fil — !I0; Mnj -JO (Ncn Mow,May IT)

Mercury in forepart of Taurujt. 8la— ?

Venus id hindpart of Taurus, 45"— BO ir^ Longitude Rreatoi' than .Sun

■Jupiter belwtien Cupdformis and Aquarius 301)- 3ofi

Tim jmr A. 1>. iii, Mov SI), unit! «ell for Moon, Venuj, Mars, Jupilev ari.l SaLuriiu:

First ffortist'opc.

(itm-piilrir

Moon in Sflfillarius ill' — 270' AliontLislIJiiarlcr.JanuaryiS

Mercury in jorcguiri oT Capricorn US iil"—3K5" ?

Solum in li^iiHni (il°— air position on the lower horoscope was too much to the right than it is shown on the Athribis zodiac. The results appear to be worst than it is claimed by Knobel in this book22.".

We should say that it seems that Kno-bel himself wasn't satisfied with his result for the astronomical dating of the Athribis zodiacs, which was 52 and 58 A.D. On Figure 3.11 we present the original table with the Knobel's computations which was reproduced by N.A. Morozov in his book [4], Vol. 6. One can easily see that Knobel didn't even try to conduct an independent astronomical dating of the zodiacs and simply attempted to find the most satisfactory dates in the postulated by Egyptologists time interval. Of course, it is always possible to choose the best date for a horoscope in a given time interval, but could it be acceptable as an astronomical solution? Knobel's solution turned out to be very bad and with such a low accuracy it could be possible to date these horoscopes practically to any arbitrary epoch. Knobel was aware of this problem and provides the following explanation:

"The horoscope positions are probably taken from tables and not from observations, and the positions are in signs and not in constellations. The year A.D. 59, January, suits well for Moon, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, but is discordant for Venus. No attempt has been made to reconcile Mercury. Jupiter and Saturn would be in similar relative positions about every 58 or 59 years. In the epochs -118, -60, -1, 59, 117, the only year that suits the three superior planets is A.D. 59, but the position of Venus is quite wrong for that year23 "

Let us quote what Morozov writes about this issue:

"In order ...to look for a better solution, I've instructed my former assistant from the Astronomical Department of the Lesgaft Institute for Natural Sciences24, late M.A. Vil'ev, to conduct a special investigation of this ancient artifact. He carried complete computations over the interval from 500 B.C. to 600 A.D. ... It turned out that Vil'ev had not obtained any satisfactory result25."

As Morozov was unable to obtain a satisfactory solution, he was forced to revise and modify his decoding of the horoscopes from the Athribis zodiacs. Namely, he interchanged Jupiter and Saturn. With this new decoding he was able to find the following solution:

Figure 3.12: Dating of the Athribis zodiac by N.A. Mo-rozov. (Translated from [4], Vol.6, p.746, Fig. 150.)

The Upper Athribis zodiac: May 6, 1049 AD. The Lower Athribis zodiac: February 9, 1065 AD. (N.A. Morozov26)

We show in Figure 3.12 Morozov's computations for the Athribis zodiacs.

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