835 Checking the Supplementary Conditions

Let us consider the first solution: August 16, -349 (i.e. 350 B.C. — according to the "historical system"). On Figure 8.12, we show the positions of the planets in morning on that day, the way they were observed from Luxor. At the moment Mercury was rising above the horizon, when the submersion of the Sun was SU H = 7o. The other planets — Venus, Saturn and Mars, were already above the horizon. At the time of their rising, the sky was still dark, so, they were very well visible. The brightness of Mercury was M = +0.2, so possibly it was also visible from Luxor. It turns out

Julian day (JD) = 1593813.00 THEBES ZODIAC Year/Month/Day = 999/2/14


Jupiter 58.0° 1.2 Taurus


Julian day (JD) = 1819187.00 THEBES ZODIAC Year/Month/Day = 268/8/30

180.7° 5.15 Virgo

247.2° 7.35 Scorpio

64.5° 1.34 Taurus


176.7° 5.05 Vir/Leo

Julian day (JD) = 2153032.00 THEBES ZODIAC Year/Month/Day = 1182/9/6

Sun 181.4° 5.17 Virgo

Moon 258.3° 7.72 Scorpio

Jupiter 86.4° 1.92 Taurus


Mars 169.8° 4.85 Leo

Mercury 173.2° 4.96 Vir/Leo

Table 8.11: Preliminary solutions for Thebes Zodiac

Table 8.11: Preliminary solutions for Thebes Zodiac that the location of an observer is important for the visibility of Mercury, since in Cairo it was not visible on that day (Mercury was rising in Cairo with the submersion of the Sun 5o). We refer the reader to section 5.11 for more details on conditions of visibility.

The solution: August 16, -349, does not satisfy all the conditions specified for the Thebes zodiac. As a matter of fact, the Sun that was supposed to be in Virgo, is on the border of Leo. It will reach Virgo only after few days. Notice that on the Thebes zodiac, the location of the Sun was indicated in Virgo. Since the figure of Leo is present on the zodiac, and the Sun is not marked there, we have to assume that the Sun was not in Leo.

Let us now check if the supplementary conditions are satisfied by this solution. The first condition that Mercury, Mars and Saturn should be located on the line of the ecliptic, is indeed satisfied (see Figure 8.12). However, the second condition that Venus is not aligned with Mercury, Mars and Saturn, is not fulfilled. Venus is located exactly on the ecliptic, as well as all the other planets. There is no reason why we should consider Venus to be located here outside the line showing the general direction of the motion of the other planets. Notice that the position of Venus on the Thebes zodiac is undoubtedly shifted to a side from the row containing the other planetary symbols. Consequently, we reject this preliminary solution as incompatible with the second supplementary condition. Let us point out, that this solution was much too early, even from the point of view of Scaliger's chronology. According to this chronology, there were no "Greeko-Roman" zodiacs in Egypt before the 2nd century B.C. (see our discussion of this issue in Chapter

Figure 8.12: Planets around the Sun on August 16, 350 B.C.

2), but on the Thebes zodiac there are such "Greeko-Roman" symbols of zodiacal constellations of Leo, Scorpio and Taurus.

Let us now discuss the second solution: August 30, 268 A.D. It follows immediately from Table 8.11, that this solution does not satisfy the first supplementary condition. Since Venus is located in between Saturn and Mercury, it can not be considered to be apart from the group of planets containing Saturn, Mercury and Mars. Moreover, we have the following order of planets in this solution: Saturn, Venus, Mercury, Mars and the Sun. It is clear that this configuration does not agree with the situation shown on the Color Thebes zodiac, where Venus is clearly separated from the other planets. Therefore, this solution should be rejected as well.

The last preliminary solution — September 5-8, 1182 A.D., satisfies perfectly all the conditions specified for the Thebes zodiac. Although, the best correspondence with the zodiac occured on September 6-7, 1182, the dates September 5, and September 8, 1182, can also be accepted as satisfying all the requested requirements. Therefore, the final solution for the Color Thebes zodiac is September 5-8, 1182 A.D..

The positions of the planets near the Sun in the morning on September 6, 1182 A.D., are presented in Figure 8.13. We have chosen Luxor as the location for an observer. It is clear that on that day the Sun was indeed in Virgo, as it is shown on the Thebes zodiac. Mercury, Mars and Saturn, as it is required, were in Leo (see Figure 8.13). Venus at that time was at the end of Leo, almost on the border between Leo and Virgo, and its position is shifted to a side from the ecliptic. It is definitely not aligned with the other planets, which are very close to the ecliptic — not more than 1o. The distance from Venus to the ecliptic is around 5o. Of course, this configuration is a perfect match

Let us summarize our observations about the solution: September 5-8, 1182 A.D.

1. The first supplementary condition is satisfied, because Venus is clearly outside the group of three planets — Mercury, Saturn and Mars. It is slightly shifted towards Virgo.

2. The second supplementary condition is also satisfied. Venus is definitely located outside the ecliptic, which is the direction followed by all the other planets in this area.

Consequently, we can confirm that the solution — September 6, 1182 A.D., is in a perfect agreement with the Color Thebes zodiac.

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