71 Denderah and Esna Zodiacs as Parts of the Gigantic Burial Complex in the Great Bend of Nile

Inside of the great bend of the Nile River in Upper Egypt, is located the Valley of the Kings, also called the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings (not far from it is also located the Valley of the Queens). It is surrounded by numerous mortuary temples, and other structures, which form a gigantic burial complex for almost all the Egyptian kings (pharaohs), queens, and members of their families (see Figure 7.1).

Figure 7.1: A fragment of a modern tourist map of Egypt showing the surroundings of the Valley of the Kings. This map doesn't show the real orientation of the temples.

Inside the center of this complex, hidden in inaccessible valleys surrounded by rocky hills, was located the ancient Egyptian necropolis, or the "city of the dead" — an area containing many tombs, including royal tombs. In a lonely valley in the western hills behind Dayr al-Bahri, the royal tombs were sunk deep into the heart of the mountain (see Figure 7.2). The long descending corridors leading to the burial chambers were carved in soft rock. The entrances were well concealed (see Figures 7.3, 7.4 and 7.5).

In particular, in the Valley of the Kings the famous Tutankhamen's tomb was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter. The entrance to this tomb is shown in the center of Figure 7.3.

On the other side of the Nile river, across from the Valley of the Kings, parallel with the bank of Nile there is a giant temple, known today as the Temple of Luxor (see Figure 7.7). Couple of kilometers further to the north, also on the east bank of the Nile river, there is located the Great Karnak Temple (see Figures 7.6 and 7.9). These two temples, which were connected by the Sphinx Avenue (see Figure 7.8), constituted the beginning place for the burial rituals. First the body was taken to the Karnak temple, then along the Sphinx Avenue, to the Luxor temple located on the bank of the Nile river, and from there, by boat to the western bank of the Nile. Next, following the road passing by the Memnon Colossi, the body was transported to the desert-mountains, where is situated the Valley of the Kings.

Figure 7.1: A fragment of a modern tourist map of Egypt showing the surroundings of the Valley of the Kings. This map doesn't show the real orientation of the temples.

Figure 7.2: The Valley of the Kings.
Figure 7.3: Entrances to the royal tomb of Ramses VI in the Valley of the Kings.
Figure 7.4: Descending corridor leading to the burial chamber.

Figure 7.5: The burial chamber with a stone sarcophagus.

Figure 7.6: Inside of the Karnak Temple.

Figure 7.7: Painting of the Luxor Temple by David Roberts in 1838. (London, Victoria and Albert Museum. Taken from [111], p. 190)

Figure 7.5: The burial chamber with a stone sarcophagus.

Figure 7.7: Painting of the Luxor Temple by David Roberts in 1838. (London, Victoria and Albert Museum. Taken from [111], p. 190)

All these temples, buildings and monuments were parts of a giant burial complex surrounding the burial grounds with numerous tombs inside. On the perimeter of this complex were located other temples including the Denderah and Esna temples in which monumental zodiac relieves were discovered. This Chapter is devoted to the detailed analysis and reconstruction of the dates encoded in these zodiacs.

It is important to point out that the Denderah and Esna temples were raised in proximity of the burial complex, what is an indication that they were connected to the burial rituals, and it is possible that these immense zodiacs were placed there to commemorate the deaths of some eminent individuals. It would be interesting to find out to whom these zodiacs were devoted, but it is not our goal to speculate on that subject. We are concerned here only in discovering the encoded dates, which may be helpful later in further investigation of this matter.

Figure 7.9: Karnak Temple (reconstruction). (See [103], pp. 208-209)
Figure 7.8: The end of Avenue of Sphinx in front of the Luxor temple. (Taken from [111], p. 191)

As we already revealed, all the dates on the Esna and Denderah zodiacs fall into the period from the 12th to 15th centuries. This implies that the events related to the construction of these temples took place in the middle ages, but this also means that the temples themselves couldn't be build before these dates. However, from the point of view of presently accepted Scaliger's chronology, it is not possible either to accept nor explain these results. On the other hand, the obtained results perfectly fit the revised version of chronology, which was constructed with the use of the empirico-statistical and astronomical methods based on the data retrieved from the collection of written historical documents (see [101]). We refer the interested reader to the books on the New Chronology (see [98, 100, 101]) and the related web sites listed in the end of the book.

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