The identification of Saturn with the jackal-headed figure turns out to correspond well with the ancient Egyptian mythology. It is accepted that the jackal-headed figure on ancient Egyptian drawings represents the god Anubis17 (see Figure 5.32), which is, according to the Pyramid Texts, the main god of the dead18. On the other hand, Saturn was also considered to be a god of the dead19, what was also stressed on the medieval representations of Saturn by the presence of a scythe as its attribute (see for example Figure 5.29). Moreover, it is believed that Anubis was sometimes identified with the Greek god Hermes, who was the conductor of the dead to Hades. But Hermes was often identified with the Roman Mercury20. Therefore, Anubis on Egyptian zodiacs could symbolize Saturn as well as Mercury, and these two possibilities should always be considered. It follows from our calculations that indeed the jackal head on Egyptian zodiacs usually represents Saturn but sometimes it may also represent Mercury. For example, on the Big Esna zodiac, it is Mercury symbolized by a figure with a jackal head. It is possible that on the Color Thebes zodiac (OU), Mercury also has a jackal head, while Saturn has an ibis head. Since, in the astronomical solution obtained for this zodiac, Saturn and Mercury were very close one to another, the other combination can not be dismissed (see Figure 5.27 (OU)).
N.A. Morozov believed that Egyptian god Anubis was a symbol of Saturn21
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