On Figure 5.27, we show the representation of Saturn on different Egyptian zodiacs, where the zodiacs (DR), (DL), (EB) and (BR), Saturn was recognized (before calculations), and on the others (with the shaded labels (EM), (AV), (AN) and (OU)) it was calculated. Saturn on the Petosiris zodiacs is not shown on Figure 5.27, because it is represented there in a different, non-typical for Egyptian zodiac form, and a comparison in this case would be unproductive. We will analyze Saturn on the Petosiris zodiacs separately. Concerning the Brugsch's zodiac we should explain why there are three different representations of Saturn shown on Figure 5.27(BR). This is related to the fact that on this zodiac instead of one, there are three main horoscopes. One of them, which was dated by N.A. Morozov, has Saturn indicated by a Demotic inscription. In the two other horoscopes, which were found by us, Saturn is shown in a symbolic way. These horoscopes were already discussed in section 3.4 (see Figure 2.16), where we also assigned to them the names Demotic Horoscope, Horoscope without Walking Sticks and Horoscope in Boats, which will be used throughout this book.
The symbol of Saturn can be sometimes easily recognized by some of its characteristic features. The most distinctive feature is the presence of a crescent on the head of a male planetary figure. Another attribute of Saturn is the hieroglyph in a shape of a bull (see Figure 5.27 (DR) and (DL)). Whenever these features are present, all the researchers agree that it is an representation of Saturn8. In other cases, we have to consider many possible variants in order to compute the right identification. Such cases on Figure 5.27 are marked with shaded labels.
We will discuss them later in detail in Chapters 7 and 8. In this section we will only analyze the cases when these characteristic features of Saturn are present, i.e. the "recognizable" cases (with un-shaded labels).
We begin with the "recognizable" representations of Saturn on the zodiacs from the Egyptian temples. There are exactly three such cases shown on Figure 5.27, namely DR, DL and EB. On all these zodiacs, we see the same planetary symbol, which is a male figure with animal's face, crescent on the head and standard planetary walking stick in his hand. Of course, the crescent shown on this figure's head could be the bull's horns (notice that the figure's face resemble bull's head), but still we will call it simply crescent. This terminology is completely unimportant for the astronomical dating, but we have our reasons for calling it crescent9.
On the both Denderah zodiacs, the planetary male figure with crescent is accompanied by the same hieroglyphic inscription. The translation of this inscription, given in , reads: "Horus le TaureaU' which means "Horus the Bull". The exact translation of this inscription is not important for us, because we will not rely on it. The significant fact is that the same inscription stands by the same planetary figure on the both Denderah zodiacs. This clearly indicates the same planet. What is that planet? The answer is provided in the previous works devoted to the Egyptian zodiacs. It is indeed Saturn10
In order to explain this answer, let us point out that on the Round zodiac, just under this figure, there is another similar figure with a crescent on the head holding a scythe instead of a walking stick (see Figure 5.28). That figure is a part of the partial horoscope for the autumn equinox, so the planetary walking stick is not a requirement in this case. Except for the object held in their hands, these two figures are completely identical, so they definitely indicate the same planet. Just from this connection, one can deduct that this planet is probably Saturn, because it moves so slowly that during the whole year its position usually stays inside the same zodiac constellation. Consequently, the positions of Saturn in the main and the partial horoscopes coincide. However, we can definitely recognize Saturn in this figure, because it is well-known that the scythe was an attribute of Saturn in old astronomy. For example, there are many pictures in medieval astronomy books showing Saturn with a scythe (see Figure 5.29).
Consequently, this male figure with a crescent on the head should be considered as Saturn, what is noting new, because this identification was used by all the previous investigators of the Egyptian zodiacs. But, based on our analysis and the fact that with this identification a complete solution is obtained, we can confirm its correctness.
Notice that on the Athribis zodiacs Saturn is shown as a bird with a crescent on its head (see Figure 5.27 (AN) and (AB)), but this "coincidence" is a result of our computations and not an a priori choice based on similarities. This identification appears to be the same as it was suggested by Flinders Petrie, but is different from the one chosen by N.A. Morozov11. There is one more "recognizable" case of Saturn on Figure 5.27 (BR). Here Saturn can also be identified prior to the computations. As we've already mentioned, there are three main horoscopes on this zodiac: Demotic Horoscope, Horoscope without Walking Sticks and Horoscope in Boats. All the three representations of Saturn are shown on Figure 5.27 (BR). In the Demotic Horoscope, the name of Saturn is written together with the name of Jupiter in two lines located near Leo's head. H. Brugsch translated this inscription as "Hor-pe-seta" and "Hor-pe-ka", which means "Saturn" and "Jupiter". As the name of Saturn is simply inscribed in this horoscope, there is no problem with its identification.
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