34 Brugschs Zodiac

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The Thebes zodiac found by H. Brugsch was discussed in detail in [4], Vol. 6, pp. 695-728. A drawing of the complete zodiac is shown on Figure 2.13 and the part containing a horoscope, which was discovered by H. Brugsch and dated by N.A. Morozov, is presented on Figure 3.14. Regarding this zodiac, Morozov wrote:

"In 1913, N.V. Rumancev, who was still at that time a student at the Philological Institute ... brought to me ... a book by Henri Brugsch: "Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, dessines sur lieux", in which among other things was described a coffin in a perfect condition,, so good that someone could say it was made not long ago. This coffin ... can be found now in the collection of Monier. Brugsch discovered it, according to his own account, in 1857 but published its description only in 1868.

Inside the coffin there was a mummy of the same type as traditional Egyptian mummies ... On the side of its cover, which symbolizes the sky ... there were painted twelve constellations of zodiacs just in the same manner as they are usually shown in astronomical books of the epoch of humanism ... The only important feature here are the Demotic inscriptions written in irregular curved lines on the left side ... among which especially striking are the two lines between Cancer and Leo aiming at the Leo's head. In the first line it is written "Hor-pe-Seta" and in the other "Hor-pe-Ka", i.e. the planets Saturn and Jupiter219. Since these two lines were placed very close one to another, while in the surrounding there was plenty of free space, it indicates that Jupiter and Saturn were near by. ... Near Virgo, from the side of Leo, there is a Demotic inscription "Hor-Tezer" meaning the planet Mars. Between Scorpio and Sagittarius, bending to head of Sagittarius, is written in Demotic "Pe-Neter-Tau," which means "light of the morning" or Venus and finally, between Scorpio and Libra, there is written "Sebek", which means Mercury30."

Zodiaque Namorozov Brugsch
Figure 3.14: Fragment of Brugsch's zodiac with the constellation symbols and names of planets. (Taken from [14])

Morozov took all the translations of the inscriptions on this zodiac from the book [14] of H. Brugsch. 30See [4], Vol. 6, pp. 697-698.

Concerning the positions of the Sun and Moon on the zodiac, Morozov wrote:

"The figure of Scorpion ... is painted in a way indicating that it is submerged in the sunlight, what takes place in November, and the figure of Taurus, which is opposite to Scorpio, is black, what indicates that it could be seen all the night (i.e. it culminated at the midnight). A crescent is shown on the head of Virgo, which corresponds exactly to the appearance of the Moon when the Sun is in Scorpio31."

In the above passage it is indicated that the Sun is shown on the zodiac in Scorpio and the Moon in Virgo.

"Demotic script was first deciphered by J.D. Akerblad in 1802, twenty years before Jean-François Champollion decoded the hieroglyphic writing. Demotic is believed to be not as old as hieroglyphs ... Brugsch dated this coffin to the time of the Roman reign in Egypt, i.e. not later than the first century A.D. It is understandable how I was excited to work on the dating of such a remarkable artifact but I couldn't believe my eyes when I've obtained a shocking result indicating the unique solution: November 17, 1682 A.D32"

Further in his book, N.A. Morozov admits that there was another perfect solution, which was even better than the first one, because the order of Mercury and the Sun, contrary to the first solution, was exactly the same as on the zodiac. However, the location of Jupiter and Saturn was in the tail of Leo, instead of the Leo's head. This solution was November 18, 1861, but Morozov rejected it as impossible because it was later than the date of the zodiac's discovery.

We've verified all Morozov's calculations and confirmed their accuracy. There are indeed only two solutions for this Demotic horoscope and they are exactly as it was described by Morozov. Let us point out that the planetary positions inside a particular constellation were never accurately indicated on the Egyptian zodiacs, even in such cases when the arrangment of a zodiac allowed it in principle (we will illustrate it later in this book). So, there is no foundation to assume that Jupiter and Saturn met exactly at the Leo's head, but we should be satisfied with any close position of these two planets inside the Leo constellation. On the other hand, the order of the planets on Egyptian zodiacs is usually correct. From this point of view the first solution is a little bit worst than the second one. At first, because of the reasons pointed out by Morozov, we'd considered the solution 1861 as impossible. However, later, we have discovered on Brugsch's zodiacs two more complete horoscopes, which contrary to the Demotic horoscope, were the integral parts of the original picture. It is quite obvious that the Demotic horoscope wasn't a part of the original design and it was appended to the zodiac much later — this fact was already remarked by the previous investigators, including N.A. Morozov33.

One of these newly found horoscopes is located on the left side of the picture and the another one on the right. We show these horoscopes on Figure 3.15. We will call the horoscope on the right the horoscope in Boats because all its planetary symbols are shown standing in boats. On the other hand, the left-hand side horoscope has all its planetary symbols represented by figures without walking sticks, probably in order to avoid confusion with the horoscope in Boats. We will call it the horoscope without Walking Sticks.

The detailed analysis of Brugsch's zodiac will be done in Chapter 8 (see section 8.2). The horoscopes in Boats and Without Walking Sticks have very few solutions in the historical time interval, but there is a pair of reasonable close solutions, which are the years 1841 and 1853. Probably, these two dates indicate the birth and the death of a young person for which this coffin was made. But this would indicate that the date of the Demotic horoscope is also from the nineteenth century (1861), so the second Morozov solution would be right. Maybe our computations can be considered as an evidence that H. Brugsch was fooled by somebody who supplied him as a joke with this not so old coffin and annotated the zodiac using Demotic script to indicate this strange date 1861. At that

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