General Structure of the Round Zodiac
the best points gives only a rough idea about the precision of a solution and had no part in the elimination process (see section 6.12).
(2) Jupiter — a man holding a planetary walking stick, walking in between Cancer and Gemini. In this identification we agree again with N.A. Morozov, N.S. Kellin and D.V. Denisenko, T.N. Fomenko, and Egyptologists. According to the translation of the hieroglyphic inscription over the head of this figure, which is given in , the figure is indeed Jupiter (see subsection 5.4.6). Consequently, Jupiter on the Round zodiac is either in Cancer or in Gemini, so the range of admissible positions of Jupiter is Cancer and Gemini.
Following the idea of N.A. Morozov, who believed that Jupiter was in Cancer, we choose as the best point for Jupiter the middle of Cancer.
(3) Mars — a male figure with a planetary walking stick standing over Capricorn. We recognized this symbol as a representation of Mars, because of the hieroglyphic inscription above its head, which indicates clearly the name of Mars (see subsection 5.4.5). As we already mentioned, there is some doubt related to this figure based on its placement above Capricorn — a possibility that this arrangement signalizes a pull-out situation. However, there is no other admissible variant for Mars in the main horoscope on the Round zodiac, so we do not have other choice but only to consider this figure as Mars in the main horoscope. It seems that due to the round shape of this zodiac, its authors avoided to use other pull-out symbols except standard boats or snakes. Since all the figures on this zodiac are placed either under or above other figures, a confusion could result if some of them were used as other kind of pull-out symbols. Still, there are some exception which we will discuss a little later. Again, there is no disagreement in this identification of Mars on the Round zodiac with other researchers, including N.A. Morozov, N.S. Kellin and D.V. Denisenko, T.N. Fomenko, and Egyptologists.
Consequently, Mars on the Round zodiac is shown in Capricorn, so the range of its admissible positions is Capricorn.
The best point for Mars is clearly the middle of Capricorn.
(4) Venus — a pair of female travelers with planetary walking sticks (see subsection 5.4.6). The leading female figure has a lioness head. They are located right under the symbol of Aries, but the strings from Pisces also point to these females in a way, which looks like they were holding them. Therefore, from these indications we can conclude that Venus was either in Aries or Pisces. This identification of Venus is the same as it was proposed by N.A. Morozov, N.S. Kellin and D.V. Denisenko, and T.N. Fomenko, but it is different than suggested by H. Brugsch and commonly used by Egyptologists. For more details we refer to subsections 5.4.6 and 5.4.7. In the case of Venus, the visibility attributes are very important. On the Round zodiac, such an attribute is the sign of a star placed over the head of a planetary figure. There is no such sign here, what indicates that Venus was invisible. Using a series of detailed photographs, we carefully checked and confirmed the absence of this attribute.
In conclusion, Venus on the Round zodiac is shown either in Aries or Pisces, so the range of its admissible positions is Aries and Pisces.
Following the suggestions of N.A. Morozov, N.S. Kellin and D.V. Denisenko, and T.N. Fomenko, who believed that Venus was shown in Aries, we choose as its best point the middle of Aries.
(5) Mercury — a two faced male figure with a planetary walking stick located in between Pisces and Aquarius. Over its head there is a star indicating its visibility. Our identification of Mercury coincides with the identifications done by N.A. Morozov, N.S. Kellin and D.V. Denisenko, and T.N. Fomenko, but is different from the one proposed by H. Brugsch and followed by Egyptologists (see subsections 5.4.6 and 5.4.7).
Thus, Mercury on the Round zodiac is either in Aquarius or in Pisces, so the range of its admissible positions is Aquarius and Pisces.
As the best point for Mercury we choose the boundary between Aquarius and Pisces.
On Figure 7.23, we show a photograph of a fragment of the Round zodiac with Mercury in the main horoscope.
discs with attached crescents, or crescents for the
In this way, we were able to identify all the planets on the Round zodiac in the main horoscope, except the Sun and Moon. Recall that there were two figures with planetary walking sticks, regarding which, there were some doubts about the type of the horoscope they belong to. One of these figures, located over Capricorn, turned out to be Mars in the main horoscope. As all the planets in the main horoscope, which are represented by travelers, were already identified, the only choice for the second figure, standing over Virgo's spike, is to belong to the partial horoscope of the autumn equinox. Notice that, except figures on the boats, there are no other figures with planetary walking sticks on the Round zodiac.
Now we begin our discussion of the Sun and Moon on the Round zodiac. Recall that the Sun and Moon in the main horoscopes on the Egyptian zodiacs, were always represented by discs, Moon only.
(6) Sun and Moon — in this case we can not make a definite identification at the preliminary stage. The situation here is similar to the Long zodiac. On the Round zodiac, there are three discs, which could be considered as candidates for the Sun and Moon in the main horoscope. Two of them are located in Pisces and the third one in Libra. We considered all the six possible variants of the Sun and Moon identifications, assuming that the remaining third disc belongs to a partial horoscope. The variant that led to a complete solution turned out to be in full agreement with the symbols of the Sun and Moon, which were already determined for the Long zodiac. Namely, on the both Denderah zodiacs, the discs in Libra (with exactly the same figure inside) symbolize the Moon. In the both cases it was the Full Moon. On the Round zodiac, the disc in Pisces, with a figure inside making an offering, was determined to be the Sun in the partial horoscope of the spring equinox. A similar symbol in Pisces on the Long zodiac represented the Sun in the partial horoscope of the spring equinox. The only difference between these two discs is that, on the Round zodiac, the figure inside is female, while on the Long zodiac it is a male. Recall that on the Long zodiac, that figure represented Jupiter "making offering to the Sun" at the spring equinox. Here, on the Round zodiac, this female figure is Venus (see below). Finally, the Sun in the main horoscope turned out to be the disc between Aries and Pisces, with a symbol of an eye inside (see more information related to the eye-symbol in subsection 5.4.12). In our case, the symbol of the eye probably indicates a proximity of the Sun to the star a-Ari, which in the old astronomy had the name Eye of Aries (see subsection 5.4.12).
Step 2. (See subsection 6.7.2.) In this step, for each of the variants, related to the identifications of the Sun and Moon, we conducted computations with the use of the program Horos. We required that any admissible solution must have the same order of the planets as it is shown on the Round zodiac. All the solutions that didn't meet this requirement were rejected. In result, several dozens of preliminary dates were obtained in the specified time interval (from 500 B.C. till 1980 A.D. — see section 6.7). Next, for all the obtained astronomical solutions we checked the visibility conditions and the partial horoscopes.
[A] Partial Horoscope of the Autumn Equinox: The partial horoscope of the autumn equinox is located around the figure of Virgo (see Figures 7.20 and 7.21). It contains:
• the figure of a traveler standing on the spike of Virgo (see Figure 7.20, 7.21 and 2.32 and 2.34).
• the bird sitting on the tail of the snake under the Leo's figure. Since it is right under the additional Virgo (see subsections 5.1.5 and 5.1.6), standing on the Leo's tail, it could refer either to Leo or Virgo.
• the five figures located under the constellations of Libra, Virgo and Leo, in the procession of figures belonging to the partial horoscopes (see Figure 7.20 and 7.21). The first figure is a person sitting on a chair with spread out arms holding two identical objects. It is located under Leo. It symbolizes the equilibrium between the day and night occurring at the equinox (see section 5.8). The figures in the procession preceding it belong to the partial horoscope of the summer solstice, which we will discuss later. The second figure — a person sitting on a chair and holding a child on his/her hand. This is probably a symbol of the new year (see section 5.8). As we already explained earlier, the Egyptian new year began in September near the autumn equinox. The next symbol is a figure of Saturn with a crescent on its head holding a scythe (see subsection 5.4.2 and Figure 5.28 and Figures 7.20 and 7.21). Notice that the figure of Saturn in the main horoscope is just above it. This situation is natural because Saturn moves so slow that within one year its position does not change much. Therefore, it has almost the same position in the partial horoscope as in the main horoscope. Notice that these two figures of Saturn are almost the same, except Saturn in the main horoscope has a planetary walking stick instead scythe. The forth figure is a lion with front paws on the equinox symbol, a rectangular table with wavy lines (see section 5.8). Finally, behind the lion there is a half human half animal figure. It appears as a female with a lioness lower body with one hand holding a bowl. Bowl in her hand is an indication of a planet in a partial horoscope. We have already seen a similar figure holding bowls in the partial horoscope of the winter solstice on the Long zodiac. Later in this chapter we will see more examples of such bowls on the Esna zodiacs. We can conclude that this figure is a planetary symbol of a partial horoscope. Since it's a female with lioness attributes, it must be Venus in Leo (because it is preceded by a figure of lion). Consequently, the meaning of this composition is understandable. In fact these five figures provide us with the information that on the autumn equinox Saturn was approximately at the same place as in the main horoscope (in Virgo or in Libra), and Venus was in Leo.
Figure 7.24: Egyptian Alphabet. (Taken from , p. 70)
Let us analyze the meaning of the first two figures mentioned earlier, i.e. the male planet standing on the Virgo's spike and the bird sitting on the Leo's snake. Let us point out that the spike in Virgo's hand is not just a decoration, but it represents the brightest star in this constellation. In the modern astronomy it is denoted as a Virgo, but in the old astronomy it was called Spica or Spike of Virgo30. On the old astronomical charts this star was placed exactly at the top of the spike in the Virgo's hand. The fact that this planetary symbol stands right at the top of the spike, indicates that it was very close to aVirgo on this day. We still need to explain what planet it is. To solve this problem we notice a hieroglyphic inscription
Figure 7.24: Egyptian Alphabet. (Taken from , p. 70)
above its head as well as a star indicating its visibility. On Figure 7.24 we present a brief table of several basic Egyptian hieroglyphs, which is completely sufficient for our purposes.
In this inscription there are three hieroglyphs (see Figures 2.34 and 7.25). The hieroglyphs were written in such a way that they always face the beginning of the word31, so the first symbol in this inscription is the curved line (or rope), which stands for the letter S. The second symbol is the leg, which means the letter B, and the third one, which looks like a cup with a handle, stands for the letter K. (See Figure 7.24.) In the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing usually only consonants were used, and all the vowels were omitted, so Egyptologists adopted a convention to put E between the consonants if there is no vowel32. Therefore, the name of this planet is SEBEK, which according to Henry Brugsch means Mercury33.
On the other hand, the figure itself has an appearance that is appropriate for Mercury (see Figure 2.34). Indeed, on some Egyptian zodiacs it was represented by a male figure with human face (see subsection 5.4.9). Let us mention that in the works of contemporary Egyptologist S. Cauville, this figure was also identified as Mercury34. We would like to signal that in the Napoleonic Album this figure is presented incorrectly. First of all, it is shifted away from Virgo's spike (see Figure 2.33), and the hieroglyphic inscription above its head is distorted. Instead of the two hieroglyphs placed at the top, there was created a bended snake (see Figures 2.33 and 2.34 in Chapter 2).
In conclusion, we obtain that in the partial horoscope of the autumn equinox we have:
• Saturn — approximately located in the same place as in the main horoscope, i.e. in Virgo or in Libra,
• Mercury — on Virgo's spike, which means that it was very close to the star a-Virgo — also called Spica,
• One more planet, possibly the Sun, is shown as a bird in Virgo or in Leo (under the feet of the "additional" Virgo).
Let us remark that on the Round zodiac, in this location, there is another small planetary figure belonging a partial horoscope. It is a human figure sitting on a chair over Leo, and holding a whip. As it has the same orientation as Gemini and other figures in the partial horoscope of the summer solstice, it could possibly belong to that partial horoscope. In our verification process we considered the both variants, but in the final solution it turned out that it belongs to the summer solstice partial horoscope and we will discuss it later in this section.
[B] Partial Horoscope of the Winter Solstice: This partial horoscope was already discussed, as one of our examples in subsection 5.5.2, so we will present here only the final conclusions that we made there.
In the partial horoscope of the winter solstice, on the Round Denderah zodiac, beside the minimal partial horoscope, which was incorporated into the figure of Sagittarius, there are three planets shown separately. One of them is probably the Sun, but two or even three other planets were also there. We definitely can recognize Mars and the other one was most probably Venus.
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