The Holy Roman-German Jewish Kingdom According to

Empire (911-1307) the Bible

principle was empirically checked using the reliable historical data of 16th - 19th centuries, and its correctness was confirmed. Therefore, the locations of the maxima constitute the numerical data that can be associated with the text X in order to characterize the epoch it is referring to.

An example of a simple scalar function, which can be easily extracted from the historical database, is the function of the time-span of the reign of subsequent rulers belonging to a certain specific dynasty. Such a dynasty function can be illustrated by its graph, which is shown on Figure 1.23. On the horizontal axis are placed the subsequent numbers of the consecutive rulers (or names of kings, emperors, etc.) and on the vertical axis is marked the length of the reign of the corresponding ruler. Fomenko calls such a sequence of rulers a numerical dynasty or simply a dynasty. The dynasty in the above example consists of 12 rulers. Again, it is clear that two chronicles describing the same portion of history, even if they have some discrepancies and are written in different languages with different calendar conventions, still would produce similar dynasty functions. It is possible to determine the confidence interval corresponding to a very high probability, that allows us to identify such dependent dynasty functions, in which case we can determine that the similarities are not coincidental and in fact, they indicate the occurrence of the same sequence of historical events.

It may sounds strange that mathematical methods can be effectively used to investigate correctness of historical dating, but it is exactly what is the case here. The methods of Fomenko, which are based on the theoretical and empirical analysis of numerical functions associated with historical data provided a very effective tool to identify multiple duplicates in history.

In order to give to "similarity" a more precise meaning, Fomenko's introduced a routine for distinguishing functions referring to different dynasties and defined a certain measure of distinctiveness between them (or rather a probability measure for distinctiveness). In simple words, he found a way to measure a 'distance' between the above numerical functions (e.g. dynasty or volume functions) in a similar way we measure a distance between two different locations. Mathematicians say that, in such a case, they are dealing with a metric space. The geometry of a metric spaces is definitely different from the geometry we learn in school, but the usual properties related to the measurement of distances are still valid there. Now we can apply the idea, that if a distance, let's say, between two towns A and B is less than few hundreds meters, then we are justified to think that in fact A and B represent practically the same town. Similarly, if a distance between two dynasty functions is sufficiently small we may think that indeed they represent the same dynasty. These methods were extensively tested on the data referring to well documented epochs. It was proved that if two dynasty functions (for 15 rulers) or volume functions were not related, the measure of distinctiveness between numerical functions associated with these dynasties was between 1 and 10-4. However, in the case of related events from the same epoch, the measure of distinctiveness was never larger than 10-8.

It is difficult to imagine that two different dynasties could have identical or almost identical dynasty functions. The probability of such a coincidence is extremely small already for dynasties composed of 10 rulers. Nevertheless, the number of such coincidences, for even longer dynasties of 15 rulers, turns out to be unexpectedly large. N.A. Morozov, who noticed the coincidence between the ancient Rome and the ancient Jewish state, discovered the first examples of surprisingly identical pairs of dynasty graphs. A formal method to study such similarities was introduced by A.T. Fomenko.

There is another surprise, besides coincidence of the dynasty functions, the other numerical functions confirm with very high probability that these dynasties are indeed the same. It brings us to a suspicion that in fact we are dealing with repetitions in the conventional version of the history. Fomenko discovered dozens of strong coincidences, sometimes between three and more dynasties. But, there are no more such coincidences in the history of the better-documented epochs, for example starting from the 16th century.

Using empirico-statistical analysis A.T. Fomenko and his collaborators discovered dozens of historical repetitions which most probably were mistakenly organized as unrelated sequences of historical events. Extremely high probability for these identifications exclude any possibility for an accidental coincidence. Let us illustrate several such historical duplicates based on selected from the book [98] material. We begin with an example showing similarities between two dynasties, one the dynasty of the Holy Roman-German Empire (10th - 13th AD) and the other — the Jewish Kings according the Bible (9th - 5th BC). On Figure 1.24 we show the vertical time line with two graphs of reign durations on its opposite sides for comparison. On this chart, we start the dates for the dynasty of Jewish kings in the year zero, which is not a date according to some era but simply indicates the starting "zero" point for this dynasty. According to Scaliger's chronology the beginning of this dynasty is around 922 B.C. Figure 1.24 was taken from the monograph [98] by A.T. Fomenko.

There are many more examples of similar dynasty pairs in the conventional chronology. For instance, the parallel between the first period of the Roman episcopate in 141-314 A.D. and the second period of the Roman episcopate in 314-532 A.D. is shown in Figure 1.26. On Figure 1.25, we present another pair of graphs, this time without annotations. All the graphs were also taken from

The Roman coronation of the Holy Roman emperors in 10-13 Centuries

Biblical Israeli rulers from 922 BC

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The pathology of the poet says that the undevout astronomer is mad the pathology of the very plain man says that the genius is mad and between these extremes, which stand for ten thousand analogous excesses, the sovereign reason takes the part of a moderator and does what it can. I do not think that there is a pathology of the occult dedications, but about their extravagances no one can question, and it is not less difficult than thankless to act as a moderator regarding them.

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