591 Paschal Moon

Let us look at the symbolic scene, shown of Figure 5.75, at the bottom of the Athribis zodiacs (see Figure 5.74). In view of the already decoded symbolism on the Egyptian zodiacs, the meaning of this scene is not difficult to understand. We read it from the right to left, as it is indicated by the direction of the procession. At the right end of this procession, we see a familiar symbol of the spring equinox, which is the sequence of the snakes with upright fore bodies (see subsection 5.8.3)....

Demotic Horoscope

SUN --- unconstrained (obtained from the solution) MOON --- in Virgo or Libra interchangeable with Mars SATURN --- in Virgo or in the beginning of Cancer MERCURY --- in Scorpio or Libra MARS --- in Virgo JUPITER --- in Virgo or in the beginning of Cancer interchangeable with Saturn INPUT DATA FOR THE PROGRAM < < HOROS> > FOR DATING HOROSCOPES ---------------------INPUT DATA---------------------- SUN MOON SATURN JUPITER MARS VENUS MERCURY FROM

751 Color Annotated Small Esna Zodiac

Step 1. (See subsection 6.7.1.) Decoding of the main horoscope on the Small zodiac and compiling the color annotated zodiac. The color annotated Small Esna zodiac is shown on Figure 7.42. With a help of the comparative tables of the Egyptian symbols, which were discussed in section 5.1, it is not difficult to recognize all the figures representing zodiacal constellations on the Small Figure 7.41 A halftone drawing of the Small Esna zodiac taken from the Napoleonic Album. (See 2 , A. Vol.I,...

20 20 70 120 120 120 120

BEST POINTS 1.0 1.0 5.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 --------------------END OF DATA--------------------- Code of the decoding variant EMS (variant with constellation brackets) MERCURY --- in Taurus or in the middle of Aries (interchangeable with Sun) JUPITER --- in Capricorn or Sagittarius INPUT DATA FOR THE PROGRAM < < HOROS> > FOR DATING HOROSCOPES ---------------------INPUT DATA---------------------- SUN MOON SATURN JUPITER MARS VENUS MERCURY FROM

93

Consequently, such an astronomical picture becomes an important additional information for the zodiac dating. It is clear that more information we have, better are the chances to obtain fewer admissible dates. In fact, if there is sufficiently large amount of additional information, it is possible that a unique and complete solution could be selected leading to reliable date for the zodiac. A planet which can provide us with particularly valuable information is...

Info

Table 7.3 Planetary Positions in the Period December 14-15, 1167 Table 7.3 Planetary Positions in the Period December 14-15, 1167 As usual, the same positions are given twice. In the first row, we show the longitude in degrees on the ecliptic J2000, and in the second row the same positions according to the constellation scale By using Turbo-Sky, we obtained that on December 15, 1167, in Cairo, the New Moon appeared in Capricorn. At that day, at the evening twilight, an extremely bright Venus (M...

110 95 30 50 100 115 120

BEST POINTS 10.0 8.5 2.5 4.5 9.5 10.5 10.5 --------------------END OF DATA--------------------- Code of the decoding variant A6 (order of planets (Sun -- Planet 4 -- Mercury) -arbitrary) Code of Data AVF SUN --- in Taurus interchangeable with the bird No. 4 MOON --- in Gemini (+ - half-constellation because of the fast motion of Moon) SATURN --- in Aquarius-Capricorn (the bird No. 3) MERCURY --- in Taurus or in the middle of Gemini (a man with a planetary walking stick) MARS --- in Pisces or...

26

General Structure of the Round Zodiac Figure 7.22 Diagram showing the general structure of the Round Denderah zodiac. The zodiacal belt is indicated by red, elements of partial horoscope are marked in light-blue, and the elements of the main horoscope in yellow. Notice the demi-circle composed of the partial horoscope symbols only. Figure 7.22 Diagram showing the general structure of the Round Denderah zodiac. The zodiacal belt is indicated by red, elements of partial horoscope are marked in...

31 History of Dating of the Denderah Zodiacs

The first attempts to astronomically date the Round and Long Denderah zodiacs took place in the 19th century following their publication in Europe. Some variants of their decoding were suggested by Egyptologists of that time, in particular by the famous German Egyptologist Henry Brugsch. His decoding was based on the interpretation of the figures and his translations of the inscriptions, which were placed above some of the figures symbolizing planets. It was quickly observed that on the...

22 Why Egyptologists Avoid Astronomical Dating of Egyptian Zodiacs

We have already explained that if on an old zodiac there are shown planets among the zodiac constellations, or in other words, if there is a horoscope contained in the zodiac, then there is sufficient evidence to consider this zodiac as an astronomical record of a certain date. Today, with help of modern astronomy and computers, we are able to decipher these dates, or at least, suggest possible variants for such dates. This is, in general, the basic idea of the astronomical dating of old...

816 Validation of Solutions with Respect to Planetary Positions

For the above pair of solutions, we will now compare the exact positions of the planets with the locations of the corresponding planetary symbols on the Athribis zodiacs. Let us recall, that these solutions were found using the variant A5 for the identification of Jupiter, Saturn and Mars (see subsection 8.1.1 for more details). The exact positions of all the planets on May 16, 1230 and February 9-10, 1268, are listed in Table 8.5. PLANETARY POSITIONS ON THE UPPER ZODIAC according to the...

832Planetary Figures on the Thebes Zodiac

Let us proceed to the identification of planetary symbols on the Thebes zodiac. These figures should be located among the symbols of constellations. In a meaningful design of a horoscope, the figures representing the planets can not be too much apart from the constellations, so a spacial relation between them could be established. Consequently, we should look for the planets in the area already occupied by the identified above constellations of Leo, Scorpio and Taurus. Indeed, among the nine...

200 10 110 80 25 10 60 End Of Data

REMARK The following constellation scale was used (see section 6.10) There are no other supplementary astronomical scenes on the zodiac (P1). The astronomical content of the zodiac (P1) is limited to its main horoscope. Let us notice that the Egyptian symbol of -eye that is located above the female bust representing the Moon (see Figure 8.21) can not be helpful either in the selection process of the admissible solutions. As we have mentioned it earlier, this symbol was used to annotate the...

812 Partial Horoscopes and Supplementary Scenes on the Athribis Zodiacs

On the Athribis zodiacs, the symbols of the partial horoscopes are located in a sequence of figures surrounding the zodiacs. The only exceptions are the supplementary scenes of the Full Paschal Moon. On the color annotated Athribis zodiacs (see Figure 8.3 and 8.4) this fringe of figures surrounding the zodiacs is marked in lightblue. The symbolism of these figures was already discussed in Chapter 5. In principle, this encircling arrangement of figures is composed mainly of the equinox and...

64 Partition of the Zodiac Belt into Zodiac Constellations

Therefore, during its yearly trip the Sun, Moon and the planets, move along the large circle on the celestial sphere, which in astronomy is called the ecliptic. The stars surrounding the ecliptic are grouped in the so called zodiacal constellations. In this way, we obtain a circular belt of constellations encompassing the firmament around the ecliptic. To be more specific, the ecliptic is the circle obtained as the intersection of the plane, containing the orbit of the Earth revolving around...

5411 The Sun in the Main Horoscope

On Figure 5.50, we show the representations of the Sun in the main horoscope on different Egyptian zodiacs. It is not difficult to notice that the Sun in the most cases was shown as a circle. Sometimes, there was a narrow crescent marked on the circle near the edge, maybe in order to indicate that the crescent of new Moon always appears near the Sun. Indeed, usually we can only observe a part of the illuminated Moon's hemisphere. The whole hemisphere, i.e. the full moon, can only be seen when...

61 Seven Planets of Ancient Astronomy Zodiacs and Horoscopes

In today's astronomy there are the nine major planets known to revolve around the Sun Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among which the first five had been visible in the sky to the naked eye since ancient times. In old times Uranus, Neptune and Pluto were unknown. Uranus was discovered in 1781 by the English astronomer William Herschel. Neptune is the only giant gaseous planet that is not visible without a telescope. It was discovered in 1846 by John C....

33

Babylonian Zodiac November 2013

Figure 3.15 Brugsch's zodiac with the three horoscopes indicated Figure 3.15 Brugsch's zodiac with the three horoscopes indicated time it wasn't a problem to create horoscopes for future dates, which could be simply looked up in the astronomy books. The story of Brugsch's zodiac definitely deserves some more investigation. In conclusion, let us summarize all the results obtained for this zodiac. We begin with the Morozov's solution Not investigated The horoscope Without Walking Sticks Not...

55 Planetary Symbols in Partial Horoscopes

The Egyptian symbols of planets in the partial horoscopes are usually very different from the planetary symbols in the main horoscopes, and that's exactlty how it should be. Otherwise, it would be impossible to extract the main horoscope, understand its meaning, and decode the date of the zodiac. Apparently, the ancient Egyptian astronomers and artists didn't want to create confusion and tried to avoid mixing up the symbols of the main and partial horoscopes. We have to acknowledge that they...

542 Saturn in the Main Horoscope

On Figure 5.27, we show the representation of Saturn on different Egyptian zodiacs, where the zodiacs DR , DL , EB and BR , Saturn was recognized before calculations , and on the others with the shaded labels EM , AV , AN and OU it was calculated. Saturn on the Petosiris zodiacs is not shown on Figure 5.27, because it is represented there in a different, non-typical for Egyptian zodiac form, and a comparison in this case would be unproductive. We will analyze Saturn on the Petosiris zodiacs...

511 Beginning of the Year on the Egyptian Zodiacs

Egyptian Zodiac Signs

As we already explained, a typical ancient Egyptian zodiac is an astronomical representation of the whole year containing the main date. Therefore, it is essential to clarify when the beginning of the year was assumed to take place. Nowadays, the new year starts on January 1st, but in old times there were many different conventions concerning the beginning of the year. For example, year could start in March, September what was very common in the middle ages or another month. Consequently, we...

74 Decoding the Date from the Big Esna Zodiac

Let us now consider two zodiacs from the ancient Egyptian city Esna. As we already mentioned in section 2.1, during the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt, very ancient Egyptian structures were discovered in Esna. Judging from the pictures published in the Napoleonic Album35, these buildings were in very bad shape partially destroyed or seriously damaged. There were two zodiacs discovered there one in a very big temple we call it the Big Esna zodiac and use the symbol EB for it , and another which...

553 Third Example Partial Horoscope of Summer Solstice on the Lower Athribis Zodiac

On Figure 5.60, we show a fragment of the Lower Athribis zodiac around the constellations of Libra, Virgo, Cancer, Gemini and Taurus. On Figure 5.60, one can easy recognize all the figures representing these constellations, which we colored in red for more clarity. They form the upper row of symbols, under which one can see two birds in yellow representing planets in the main horoscope, and further below them, there is another row of symbols in blue , which is the partial horoscope of summer...

584 Symbols of the Summer Solstice in Gemini

The symbols of the summer solstice are presented on Figures 5.71, 5.73 and 5.72. Let us list them 1 Like in the case of Sagittarius, the symbol of Gemini on the most Egyptian zodiacs is a complex figure. Apart of Gemini itself it also includes the minimal partial horoscope of the summer solstice Figure 5.70 Symbols of the spring equinox on different Egyptian zodiacs. In some cases these symbols are encircled by green contours to distinguish them from other symbols Figure 5.70 Symbols of the...

62 Calculated Horoscopes on the Egyptian Zodiacs

Computing Planetary Positions

As we already explained, the ancient astronomers were able to determine by direct observations the positions of all the planets except the Sun. The position of the Sun was either calculated or roughly estimated. Consequently, the horoscopes on the old zodiacs could be created as a result Figure 6.1 A page from an eighteenth century Russian calendar, from the time of Empress Anna Ivanovna 1730-1740 . On the enlarged fragment the Sun and Moon are listed among the seven planets. Figure 6.1 A page...

75 Decoding the Date from the Small Esna Zodiac

In the previous section we've presented how the date shown on the zodiac found inside a large ancient temple in Esna was decoded. We called this zodiac the Big Esna zodiac. It turned out that this date was pointing at the end of the 14th century A.D. the year 1394. As we've already mentioned, in another temple in Esna, a second zodiac of a similar type was also discovered. In this section we will discuss the decoding of the date from that zodiac, which we call the Small Esna zodiac. We call...

51 Symbols of Constellations on Egyptian Zodiacs

Star Map Northern Hemisphere

Figure 5.1 The star chart of the Northern hemisphere made by Diirer's color added for better contrast . The zodiac constellations are placed around the ecliptic illustrated as a circle. Figure 5.1 The star chart of the Northern hemisphere made by Diirer's color added for better contrast . The zodiac constellations are placed around the ecliptic illustrated as a circle. Figure 5.2 Gemini on the Long Denderah zodiac. Taken from 10 Figure 5.2 Gemini on the Long Denderah zodiac. Taken from 10 In...

581 Symbols of the Autumn Equinox in Virgo

Figure 5.64 The partial horoscope of autumn equinox on the Big Esna zodiac with the invisible marked in brown and visible marked in light-blue planets. The invisibility symbol a disk is marked in yellow. Figure 5.64 The partial horoscope of autumn equinox on the Big Esna zodiac with the invisible marked in brown and visible marked in light-blue planets. The invisibility symbol a disk is marked in yellow. On Figure 5.66 we show the Egyptian symbols related to the autumn equinox. These symbols...

3

Zodiac Constellations And Dates

However, this is not always the case. On some Egyptian zodiacs there is no constellation figure present or sometimes only few of them are indicated by typical figures. We will call them the Thebes type zodiacs, because they mostly come from Luxor that is located at the place of ancient Thebes. On the Thebes type zodiacs, the zodiacal belt was probably divided into several parts. It is unknown to us how these parts are related to the constellations or where they are located on the ecliptic see...

21 Egyptian Zodiacs

Zodiac Denderah

Egyptian zodiacs are nothing other than symbolic maps representing, in a specific ancient Egyptian style, astronomical objects on the sky. If we look upward at the sky on a clear night we will have an impression that the sky is a great hollow spherical shell with the Earth at the center. It is sometimes called celestial sphere. This celestial sphere is gradually and continuously changing its orientation, which is caused by the rotation of the Earth. However, a careful observer can notice that...

9

Cool Old Sketch Books Medevel

Figure 5.29 Saturn shown with a scythe on an old drawing found in a medieval astronomical book. Taken from 32 . Figure 5.29 Saturn shown with a scythe on an old drawing found in a medieval astronomical book. Taken from 32 . Regarding the Horoscope in Boats, it is not difficult to recognize here Saturn, because it is represented exactly by the same symbol as on the Denderah zodiacs a male figure with an animal bull-like head and a crescent on the top of it,...

551 First Example Partial Horoscope of Autumn Equinox on the Long Zodiac

Zodiaque Denderah

On Figure 5.58, we show a fragment of the Long Denderah zodiac around the Virgo constellation. Recall that Virgo is the place for a partial horoscope of the autumn equinox, and indeed such a partial horoscope can be found there. In order to understand the astronomical symbolism shown on Figure 5.58, first of all we have to remember that on the Long Denderah zodiac every constellation is represented by three decans see Section 5.2.1 , one of each is the specific figure of the constellation, and...

522 Principal Scale on Egyptian Zodiacs

The presence of decans on an Egyptian zodiac gives us a hope that the positions of the planets in the main horoscope are specified here more precisely. For example, a creator of the Long zodiac could indicate the location of a planet, by placing it in between appropriate decans, with accuracy up to 20o in average. Unfortunately, this is not the case. If we look again on the Long Denderah zodiac, we will find out that all the planetary figures from the main horoscope, except the Sun and Moon,...

35

Figure 5.43 Planets on the Inner Petosiris zodiac. Figure 5.43 Planets on the Inner Petosiris zodiac. astronomical symbolism in a form of the double representation of these planets. However, N.A. Mo-rozov pointed out that the creators of the Egyptian zodiacs had already a clear understanding of the true nature of the morning evening planets, which means that these zodiacs could not belong to the epoch of the early astronomy. A question arises after identifying Venus with the figure of Mercury,...

Zodiaque Denderah

Figure 5.39 The fragment of the Big Esna zodiac showing figures of Venus and Mars. Figure 5.39 The fragment of the Big Esna zodiac showing figures of Venus and Mars. Figure 5.41 The fragment of the Round Denderah zodiac showing figures of Venus and Mercury Figure 5.41 The fragment of the Round Denderah zodiac showing figures of Venus and Mercury sibly, the reason for it was the absence of an inscription near the heads of these two figures. H. Brugsch, in his attempt of decoding of the planetary...

34 Brugschs Zodiac

Zodiaque Namorozov Brugsch

Brugsch was discussed in detail in 4 , Vol. 6, pp. 695-728. A drawing of the complete zodiac is shown on Figure 2.13 and the part containing a horoscope, which was discovered by H. Brugsch and dated by N.A. Morozov, is presented on Figure 3.14. Regarding this zodiac, Morozov wrote In 1913, N.V. Rumancev, who was still at that time a student at the Philological Institute brought to me a book by Henri Brugsch Recueil de Monuments Egyptiens, dessines sur lieux, in...

54Planetary Symbols of the Main Horoscope 541 Planetary Walking Stick

Planetary Symbols

It was already noticed by the 19th century investigators that there is a rule allowing to recognize the most of the planetary symbols on the Egyptian zodiacs by a walking sticks held in their hands. Moreover, this planetary walking stick is not just a simple rod but it must be equipped with a handle on its top see Figure 5.23 . Most often such a handle has a hooked T-shape see Figure 5.26 but it can also be bulb-shaped. Figure 5.22 Painting of a dead person and a wooden sarcophagus. Taken from...

544 Jupiter in the Main Horoscope

On Figure 5.36, we show the representations of Jupiter in the main horoscope on different Egyptian zodiacs. We use the same convention as in the case of Saturn, namely, we mark with shaded labels those zodiacs where it was not possible to identify the symbol of Jupiter during the first stage prior to calculations and the identification was obtained only after the calculations. For the same reason as for Saturn, on Figure 5.36 the symbols representing Jupiter on the Petosiris zodiacs, as they...

163 Statistical Analysis of the Star Catalogue Almagest

Let us return to the investigation of the Almagest conducted by astronomer R. Newton's. It is important to emphasize that Newton never, at any moment, doubted the correctness of Scaliger's chronology. His conclusions can be summarized as follows 1. The astronomical situation on the real sky in the beginning of the Christian era does not match the astronomical data contained in the Almagest 2. The presently available version of the star catalogue Almagest does not contain descriptions of direct...

42 Equinox and Solstice Points on Egyptian Zodiacs

In this section we will discuss briefly the background behind our new unified interpretation of the symbols of Egyptian zodiacs. The precise astronomical meaning of the symbolism on Egyptian zodiacs was not systematically investigated by previous researchers and consequently, their astronomical dating contains flaws. Let us notice that on many Egyptian zodiacs one can find the same or similar symbols. Sometimes, these symbols are almost identical or just slightly modified. Moreover, there are...

521 Decans on the Long Denderah Zodiac

On some Egyptian zodiacs, in particular on the zodiacs of Thebes type, instead of the constellations the ecliptic is divided into 36 parts, each of them representing a sector 10o long in average see Figure 5.19 . The time needed for Sun to travel across such a sector is approximately 10 days in average. For these reasons we will call these sectors decans. For each of the twelve zodiac constellations correspond in average three decans. It is quite probable that on some Thebes type zodiacs the...

543 Seth Anubis and Thoth as Egyptian Symbols of Saturn and Mercury

Seth Egypt Symbol

The identification of Saturn with the jackal-headed figure turns out to correspond well with the ancient Egyptian mythology. It is accepted that the jackal-headed figure on ancient Egyptian drawings represents the god Anubis17 see Figure 5.32 , which is, according to the Pyramid Texts, the main god of the dead18. On the other hand, Saturn was also considered to be a god of the dead19, what was also stressed on the medieval representations of Saturn by the presence of a scythe as its attribute...

Sohag Horoscope Tomb

Tomb Petosiris

Figure 2.9 Photograph of a fragment of the Long Denderah zodiac. Taken from 10 , page 37 Figure 2.9 Photograph of a fragment of the Long Denderah zodiac. Taken from 10 , page 37 dious. We must say that the dating of the Denderah temple was a questionable process from its beginning to the end. An inscription inside the temple indicated that this temple was built by the famous pharaoh Khufu himself from the 6th dynasty according to Egyptologists, he reigned around the year 3000 B.C. , who was the...

32 Two Esna Zodiacs

Esna lies 53 kilometers south of Luxor on the west bank of the Nile river, exactly at the place where Nile begins a big semicircle meander around a stony hills area. This was the burial place for Pharaohs and there is also located the famous Valley of the Kings. It is surrounded by many ancient Egyptian temples, structures and monuments. Denderah is located on the north side of this semicircular area, which is not so far from Esna. Let us point out that most of the ancient Egyptian zodiacs come...

24 Pictures of Egyptian Zodiacs used for Dating in this Book

Egyptian Coffin Zodiac

Investigation of an Egyptian zodiac for the purpose of astronomical decoding requires the most careful analysis of its smallest details. Our study of Egyptian zodiacs shows that some of the details, which at the first glance may seem to be unimportant, in fact are crucial for the correct decoding of the zodiac's astronomical meaning. Therefore, the astronomical dating should be done based on the most accurate and detailed pictures of the zodiacs. The most valuable are the large and detailed...

161 Coordinate System used in the Almagest

The Almagest

The state of preservation of the Almagest is extraordinary, and it seems that in spite that it had been rewritten many times since the 2nd century, its observational data shows inexplicable accuracy. Notice that it is natural to expect that numerous typographical errors must have been made when the catalogue was copied. It is also strange that the star catalogue uses the spring equinox as the reference point for the measurements of the longitudes, which involved additional difficulties that...

23 Our New Approach to Dating Egyptian Zodiacs

Difficulties, that were described in the previous section 2.2, can be removed by using our new method of decoding and dating ancient Egyptian zodiacs. Namely, we adopt a formal routine to decode not only horoscopes contained in Egyptian zodiacs but also additional astronomical information frequently included in these zodiacs. Let us point out that usually there is enough of additional information to eliminate all incorrect solutions and determine the date of the zodiac uniquely. When dealing...

16 The Controversy over Ptolemys Almagest

The details related to the astronomical and mathematical analysis of the Almagest were published in the book by A.T. Fomenko, V.V. Kalashnikov and G.V. Nosovskiy Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star configurations. Dating Ptolemy's Almagest39 It is traditionally assumed that Claudius Ptolemy was an Egyptian astronomer, mathematician, and geographer of Greek descent who worked in Alexandria during the 2nd century AD. His major astronomical work, the star catalogue Almagest...

12 Who were the Critics of Scaligers Chronology

Questions and doubts regarding the correctness of the presently accepted chronology aren't just a recent phenomenon. They were raised as soon as it was first published. In fact, there were also other competing hypothesis indicating a young age of the written history. Let us cite from the Morozov's book 4 6 Professor de Arcilla of Salamanca University published two of his works Programma Historiae Universalis and Divinae Florae Historicae in the 16th century, where he stated that the whole of...

Peculiarities In Development Of Ancient Astronomy

1 The Problems of Historical Chronology 1 1.1 Creation of the Contemporary Chronology of the Ancient Times 2 1.2 Who were the Critics of Scaliger's 1.3 Questionable Authenticity of the Fundamental Ancient Manuscripts 8 1.4 Medieval Anachronisms and Measuring Time in the Middle Ages 10 1.5 Vowels in Ancient 1.6 The Controversy over Ptolemy's 1.6.1 Coordinate System used in the 1.6.2 North Star as the First Star of the Catalogue Almagest 14 1.6.3 Statistical Analysis of the Star Catalogue 1.7...