If we use the Midheaven, the most simple method is to divide up the difference between the Ascendant and Midheaven equally. If, for example, the Ascendant is 20 degrees Libra and the Midheaven 2 degrees Leo, a difference of 78 degrees, then we divide that by three. In that case, we get an extent of 26 degrees for each house. The cusp of the eleventh house then is 28 Leo and that of the twelfth is 24 Virgo. This is the method most often used in Vedic astrology.
However, one may ask, if the difference between the cardinal points of the houses is not equal, why should it be divided up equally? For this reason, various other houses systems like the commonly used Placidian have been formulated. This point certainly has its validity.
We can use whichever of these systems we find most accurate or logical, as the difference is not always that great. As India is fairly close to the equator where such differences are less, this issue did not require as much consideration as in Europe, much of which is not far from the arctic circle.
For common and easy usage we can use a regular Western Table of the Houses with the Placidian house cusps (or whatever system we prefer). We can subtract the appropriate Ayanamsha from each and take them as the center of their respective houses. We can take a western chart thereby and simply subtract the appropriate Ayanamsha from all house positions and regard the cusps as the middle of the house. If planets are located between house cusps, the difference between the two should be divided, so that we know what house the planet is in the Vedic chart.
As in our example above, if Mars is located at 16 degrees Leo, between the cusps of the tenth house at 2 Leo and the eleventh at 28, dividing the difference, we find the end of the tenth and the beginning of the eleventh at 15 Leo, thus placing Mars in the eleventh house.
Astrology computer programs do these calculations for us and usually allow some choice of systems. In all this it is best not to become too concerned about minor differences. It is not that there is only one way to read nature.
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