(adapted mainly from Wei Songshan, ed. (1995))
Baiqing WW (mountain) SW of modern Xihexian in Gansu province, also called Chouchi -fiLffe mountain.
Bingzhou #(prefecture) One of the traditional nine prefectures, applied to different locations at different periods of time, somewhere in modern Shanxi, Shaanxi and Hebei provinces.
Cai (state) Originally NE of modern Changyuanxian ilSiS^,
Henan province, but later moved to SW of modern Shangcaixian -tHlf.; during the Spring-and-Autumn period the capital was moved to Xincai ifli in modern Xincaixian, Henan province and finally to Xiacai ~FH in modern Fengtaixian Sl nH, Anhui province, before it was annexed by the Chu M state in 447 bc.
Chouchi fllilfc (mountain) Various grades of administrative divisions, such as township, district and prefecture, were once known by this name, which originated from a pool in a mountain in Gansu province. The text in the Historiographer's 'Remarks' refers to the mountain on which the pool named Chouchi was found. See Baiqing (mountain).
Chu (state) Territory varied with different periods of history, covering various parts of modern Hubei, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces at different periods. Its heyday was during the Spring-and-Autumn and the Warring States periods when its capital was at modern Ji'nancheng ffilitt NW of modern Jianglingxian ffKlp., Hubei province.
Han & (state) First established in the eleventh century bc as a princedom by the first king of Zhou and situated to the east of modern Hejinxian Shanxi province. At the beginning of the Spring-and-Autumn period it was annexed by Jin la state.
Jizhou MM (prefecture) Liangzhou i&iH (prefecture)
However, it was reestablished during the middle of the fourth century bc, when Jin itself was subdivided into three states. Its capital was first at Pingyang ^FBI (SW of modern Linfenshi S&^rfc, Shanxi province), then at Yiyang SCPli (west of modern Yiyangxian, Henan province) and at Yangzhai P§H (modern Yuzhoushi HWi, Henan province). Finally it moved to Zheng IP (in modern Xinzhengxian 0fJlPfi) after annexing Zheng state, but in 230 bc it was annexed in turn by Qin IS state.
In modern Shanxi province. Once a powerful state during the Spring-and-Autumn period when its capital was at Xintian 0rE0, situated to the west of modern Houmashi ^l§r|J, Shanxi province. During the middle of the fourth century bc, it was subdivided into the three states of Han It, Zhao ffi and Wei M.
One of the traditional nine prefectures, applied to different locations at different times of history, in modern Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou provinces. One of the traditional nine prefectures occupying parts of modern Hebei and Shanxi provinces. One of the traditional nine prefectures referring to the territory bounded by the Huashan ^lil mountain in Shaanxi province and the Heishui H-'.K river that has not yet been exactly identified. Also the name of an administrative area established at various times in various places in Shaanxi province. In the year 496 the Northern Wei kingdom was renamed Chouchi prefecture Liangzhou (SW of modern Xihexian WfflSS, Gansu province). In modern Shandong province with its capital in Qufu ft-i-, the ancient city east of modern Qufushi, Shandong province. In modern Shandong province with its capital in Linzi (NE of modern Bozishi W i'gTU, Shandong province), annexed by Qin Shihuangdi in 221 bc.
Originally somewhere in modern Gansu province, but during the Spring-and-Autumn period first moved to Pingyang -^Fil (SE of modern Baojixian KStS, Shaanxi province) and then to Yong ?fi (south of modern Fengxiangxian H,P8SS, Shaanxi province), and during the Warring States period its capital was moved three times until it settled down in the year 350 bc in Xianyang js£P§ (NE of modern Xianyangshi, Shaanxi province). In 221 bc, Qin Shihuangdi unified China.
Qingzhou WW (prefecture)
Sanhe ir-M (prefecture)
Shu S3 (state)
One of the traditional nine prefectures somewhere from Taishan mountain eastward towards the sea. Location of the prefecture as well as its capital changed many times during the course of history. They were at the early stage mainly within modern Shandong province, but later had moved to modern Hebei and Jiangsu provinces. Traditionally comprising the three sub-prefectures of Hedong 'M^ (in Shanxi province with its capital at Yuwangcheng S3EM (NW of modern Xiaxian 31 S£, Shanxi province)); Henei Mft (in Henan province with the capital moved several times in the course of history, at the Jin period in Yewang ifl in modern Shenyangshi '¡fc&irfi, Henan province); and Henan 'MS (in Henan province with its capital NE of modern Luoyangshi). These formed the three legs of a tripod supporting the 'centre of the heaven' believed to be over its centre (in modern Shanxi and Henan provinces). Abbreviation for Sichuan province. An ancient state in Sichuan province of the Shang and Zhou periods with its capital in Chengdu (modern Chengdu, Sichuan province). The Shu Han kingdom (221-264) with its capital in Chengdu in modern Sichuan province. Established in early Zhou with its capital at Shangqiu Mix. (south of modern Shangqiuxian, Henan province). The capital moved to Pengcheng
(in modern Xuzhoushi, Jiangsu province) during the Warring States period. In the year 286 bc it was annexed by Qi state. Established in early Zhou with its capital at Mo $$ (in modern Qixian Henan province). During the Spring-and-Autumn period the capital moved to Cao * (east of modern Huaxian ¡HH, Henan province), then to Chuqiu Hir (NE of modern Huaxian, Henan province), and finally to Diqiu it-EE (SW of modern Puyangxian ifBISI, Henan province). In 254 bc it was annexed by Wei ft state. Later it was restored with the help of Qin state with its capital in Yewang 5J31 (in modern Shenyangshi 'ifciarfi, Henan province), but finally it was subjugated by Qin Shihuangdi's son. A state established in early Zhou north of modern Ruichengxian Shanxi province. It was conquered by Jin state in 661 bc. In the middle of the fourth century bc, Jin state itself met its fate when it was subdivided into three different states, one of which was Wei. The capital of the new Wei
(kingdom) Xuzhou f&iH (prefecture)
Yan M (state) Yangzhou MM (prefecture)
Yanzhou ü&ifl (prefecture)
state was first in Anyi (NW of modern Xiaxian Shanxi province). The Wei kingdom (220-264) established by Cao Pi W35 with its capital at Luoyang, Henan province. An ancient state in modern Jiangsu province that grew in strength during the later part of the Spring-and-Autumn period when its capital was in Wu ^ (modern Suzhou, Jiangsu province), but was annexed by the Yue it state in 473 bc. (222-280) One of the Three Kingdoms founded by Sun Quan SIS in eastern China south of the Yangzi river with its capital in Jianxing ISH (modern Nanjing, Jiangsu province). One of the traditional nine prefectures occupying south Shandong province and the region east of Jiangsu province and north of the Yangzi. Its boundaries and capital city changed several times in the course of history. During the Three Kingdoms period the Wei kingdom moved its capital to Pengchengxian which was subsequently renamed Xuzhou (in modern Xuzhoushi, Jiangsu province). There were many later changes. Established in early Zhou somewhere in modern Hebei province with its capital at Ji IS (SW of modern Beijing), and annexed by Qin state in 222 bc.
One of the traditional nine prefectures referring variously to regions south of the Yangzi in modern Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Jiangsi and Fujian provinces. Also the name of one of the 13 administrative regions of Eastern Han in modern Anhui province that was renamed Yuzhou Mj'H on several occasions, but subsequently had the name Yangzhou restored; in the year ad 589 there was a switching over of names - Yangzhou here became known as Shouzhou but the name Wuzhou ^¡1+1 (with its capital in Guanglingxian JSf&SS, NW of modern Yangzhoushi rfr, Jiangsu province) was replaced by Yangzhou. Also the name of a prefecture in Jiangsu province with its capital in modern Nanjing, established by the Wu kingdom in the Three Kingdoms period, but which was renamed Jiangzhou ^H in ad 589.
One of the traditional nine prefectures stretching from modern Henan province eastwards to modern Shandong province and part of Hebei province. The location of its capital changed with different dynasties.
Yizhou iitiH (prefecture)
Yongzhou iSiH (prefecture)
Youzhou ftiH (prefecture)
Yue ffi (state)
One of the 13 administrative regions established by Western Han in modern Sichuan province. Its capital was at first in Luoxian ff> (north of modern Guanghanxian JMifiil, Siquan province), but was moved several times until it came to Chengduxian /SiSfi (in modern Chengdushi). Also the name of a prefecture established in ad 471 by the Northern Wei dynasty with its capital in Yandongxian (modern Longhuaxian HHbH,
Hebei province) and the name of another prefecture established by the Liao dynasty (907-1125) in Jilin province, NE China.
One of the traditional nine prefectures in Western China in the region of the Heishui HbK and Xihe MM rivers that has been variously interpreted as modern Qinghai province, Gansu province and Shaanxi province, together with Shanxi province where the Yellow River flows. Name of several prefectures established at different times in different places. The Qin state established the Qinzhou Hifl'l prefecture in 243 bc with its capital in Pubanxian StifiM. (SW of Yongjixian 7l<S?l£, Shanxi province), renamed Yongzhou by the Western Han in 134 bc, but later abolished then restored and finally renamed Qinzhou in ad 432 by the Northern Wei dynasty. Also a prefecture established in ad 194 with its capital in Guzangxian (modern Wuweishi ¿KgScrfr,
Gansu province), which later moved to Changan fiiS (NW of modern Xi'anshi Shaanxi province).
One of the traditional nine prefectures in NE China starting from modern Hebei province. One of the 12 administrative divisions established in Western Han with its capital in Jixian MM (SW of modern Beijing), but the name was changed to Yan at the fall of the Tang dynasty in the early tenth century. During the fourth century, the Eastern Jin temporarily established a prefecture by the same name with its capital in San'acheng Hl^JftS (SE of modern Jinhuxian jfefiMfS, Jiangsu province), but soon abolished it.
Existed from the Xia M to the Warring States period, when its capital was at Guiji (modern Shaoxingshi ^SRlfi, Zhejiang province). In 473 bc it annexed Wu state and moved its capital to Langye (SW of modern Jiaonanshi JPffi rfr, Shandong province), but was itself later annexed by the Chu i£ state.
Yuzhou JSiH (prefecture)
Zhao it (state)
One of the traditional nine prefectures comprising regions in modern Henan, Anhui and Hubei provinces. One of the 12 administrative divisions in Western Han. There were many name changes as well as change of location of the capital city subsequently. One of the better known locations for the capital was Luoyang. It had once changed name with Yangzhou (see Yangzhou prefecture above).
A state instituted during the early Zhou period with its capital somewhere north of modern Hongdongxian iftilB)^, Shanxi province. Had its capital first in Jinyang if® (SW of modern Taiyuanshi ^CJS r|J, Shanxi province) during the Warring States period and later in Handan WW (SW of modern Handanshi, Henan province). In 222 bc it was annexed by Qin state. A state instituted during the early Zhou period with its capital in modern Huaxian Shaanxi province. The capital was moved to Xinzheng ffrSP (modern Xinzhengxian, Henan province) during the eighth century bc. In 375 bc it was annexed by Han It state.
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