Taiyi 16 Deities

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8th

Death

Death

Dead person

Illness/Danger

Illness/Danger

Servant

Friend

9th

Friendship/Travel

Law

Traveller

Migration

Migration

Illness/Danger

Civil post/Salary

10th

Reputation/Position

Action/Power

Mid-heaven

Official rank

Civil post/Salary

Fortune

Farm/House

11th

Friend/Welfare

Things caught

Bliss

Fortune

Fortune

Appearance

Fortune

12 th

Loss

Misfortune

Misfortune

Poverty/Disaster

Appearance

Parents

Parents

Note: Qiyao = Qiyao rangzaijue ZG = Zhang Cuo xingzong Dzang = Daozang Ziwei doushu Taiyi = Taiyi rendao mingfa Ziwei = modern Ziwei doushu

Note: Qiyao = Qiyao rangzaijue ZG = Zhang Cuo xingzong Dzang = Daozang Ziwei doushu Taiyi = Taiyi rendao mingfa Ziwei = modern Ziwei doushu

12 palaces. The introduction of the 12 palaces later facilitated the assimilation of the Hellenistic 12 houses into the Chinese system. The 12 houses here are in a different order from those used in the Zhang Guo xingzong and the Daozang Ziwei doushu, although the names of the houses remain almost identical. However, seven of the 12 houses are in the same order as those in the modern Ziwei doushu astrology and 10 of the houses among them bear the same names. 'Friend' replaces the ninth house 'Servant' in the Taiyo rendao mingfa in modern Ziwei doushu. The 11th house 'Appearance' and the 12th house 'Parents' have merged into the 12th house 'Parents' in modern Ziwei doushu, which has added the seventh house 'Migration'. Lack of documentation in a field of study of this nature renders it difficult to trace the date of origin. Perhaps this offshoot of the Taiyi system was stimulated by the impact of Western astrology brought by the Nestorians from Persia in the eighth century. From this the modern Ziwei doushu, which has stronger Iranian links than Indian than the Daozang version, was derived. Figure 3.22 shows the likely routes of transmission for the Ziwei doushu systems, both Daozang and modern.

The Taiyi rendao mingfa makes use of 16 deities (shiliu shen +7^?$) six of which are identical in name but not in function as those used in the traditional Taiyi method. All these deities are said to possess the attribute of transforming themselves into 'stars'. Seven of the deities have direct

Iranian Culture Hindu Culture Chinese Culture

Iranian Culture Hindu Culture Chinese Culture

Modern Ziwei doushu

Figure 3.22 Transmission of the Ziwei doushu system of astrology.

Modern Ziwei doushu others

Figure 3.22 Transmission of the Ziwei doushu system of astrology.

connection with the name Taiyi-, one of them, the Junji Taiyi (Sovereign-Base Taiyi), can transform into the 'star' Ziwei. Hence we find here another interpretation for the term Ziwei and another link between the Taiyi rendao mingfa and modern Ziwei doushu astrology. Ziwei is categorized both as Earth in the Taiyu rendao mingfa and in the modern Ziwei doushu, but as Wood in the Daozang ziwei doushu, again showing that the modern Ziwei doushu is more closely connected with the method in the Taiyi rendao mingshu than that in the Daozang. There are some terms that are identical in the Taiyi rendao mingfa and the modern Ziwei doushu, but it is difficult to find identity of common attributes among deities with common names.

Modern Western astrology originated from Greece and Babylon but has come a very long way since the time of Ptolemy. For a long period it was confronted by the question of free will posed by the church. In the nineteenth century it came, especially in North America, under the influence of theosophy and the Rosicrucians and it took on a new direction which aimed to integrate science, religion and philosophy and at the same time to avoid facing the controversy of free will. There is a parallel case in China, where Hellenistic astrology containing elements of Babylonian origin arrived from the eighth century through India and Persia, modified along its way by Hindu and Iranian cultures. Foreign cultures were gradually absorbed into Chinese culture until the origin can hardly be identified. As a general rule, the further back we go towards the eighth century the more easily we can identify imported elements of Hellenistic astrology in Chinese writings. Hence, in the modern Ziwei doushu method of astrology one does not easily find traces of foreign influence at first sight. For example, it is only in a remark made in a modern text that one finds a statement explaining that the Huaji 'star' was actually Ketu, while categorizing it under ren Water.59 What was traditionally Chinese was also subjected to change. For example, Ziwei itself, previously categorized as Yin Earth in the Taiyi rendao xingzong, is now regarded as Yang Earth. As a 'living' system in current use, continuous process of evolution is to be expected.

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