Early History

Being of such an importance, the early civilisations of the world were greatly attracted by this planet. It was given different names and attributes by different peoples of the world. The Romans called it by the name of Jove, the supreme deity of the nation. Jupiter to them was also the God of Heaven and of weather. To the Greeks, this planet was known as Zeus, the Father of Gods. The Egyptians named it Ammon or Amoun who was considered older than Amoun-Ra who is "Lord of the worlds enthroned on the Sun's disc and appears in the abyss of heaven". The Egyptians in this way gave to Jupiter an earlier existence than to the Sun. The Norse called it by the name of Thor, from the word Thonar which meant to thunder. This Scandinavian god was thought to be the son of Odin and Freya; and the chief of all Elemental Spirits, Odin was their god of battles, one of the creators of man, and he was regarded as one with * The Early Teaching of the Masters 1881 - 1883, A.P. Sinnett, T P H Adyar, Madras, p. 162

Hermes or Mercury. Essentially, however, Odin in the patheon of the Norsemen was considered to be the "Father of the Gods" and Divine Wisdom, and as such he was Hermes or the creative wisdom. Freya or Frigga was considered a manifestation of the nourishing Mother Earth sitting on her golden throne formed of webs of golden light, and with three divine virgins as her handmaidens and messengers, and she was occupied with spinning golden threads with which to reward good men. From this we can see the Norsemen approaching Jupiter on a very much similar line as that of the Hindus though in their expression there were some differences but these were only superficial in character.

The Babylonians called Jupiter by the name of Merodach and the Chaldeans also followed the same nomenclature. Merodach was also the Great God of Wisdom who resurrects the dead.

Among the Hindus, Jupiter, known as Brihashpati, is considered the preceptor of gods. Brihaspati is the name of a deity and also of a Rishi. The planet Jupiter which also goes by the same name is considered the personification of the Real Teacher—Guru—and is also the High Priest. He is as such also connected with exoteric rituals whereby the offerings by humanbeings reach gods, the devas. He is the husband of Tara, literally meaning all the stars and is the father of Mercury—Pure Intellect, Budd'ni. He is also said to be the author of smritis, the ancient scriptures of the country which are said to be divine in origin but were recorded for the benefit of humanity.

These mythological references existing in various countries clearly indicate the very high position ascribed to Jupiter. All of them have also considered this planet as connected with righteousness, divinity, spirituality, and wisdom. They have also related it with the Sun, the Moon, Mercury and other stars in general.

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