The Babylonians used circles to represent maps of the sky and the positions of each planet. With such maps, we can easily see the constellation (or zodiac sign) that each planet is in. But we can also see from these circle/maps the ALIGNMENTS of the planets to each other. For this reason, we will refer to such charts in the future as BABYLONIAN ALIGNMENT CHARTS, because one purpose was to show the positions of the planets, and their alignments relative to each other and to the zodiac constellations. This is important because the alignments of the planets to each other are a part of the Planetary Geometry of the charts.
One riddle that has dogged astrologers is the question of how and why the Babylonian astrologers chose to have 12 zodiac constellations, and why each of them were the same size of 30 degrees.
They had a very good reason for doing so. Somewhere along the line, the Babylonian astrologers had made an interesting discovery. They were very interested in the Moon, and they learned that the position of a Full Moon in the sky moved 30 degrees (30 days of the Sun's movement) from one Full Moon to the next. So by having 12 zodiac constellations, each of which was 30 degrees, when the last Full Moon occurred in the 15th degree of one zodiac constellation, then the next Full Moon will occur in the 15th degree of the next one--or at least very close to the 15th degree of the next zodiac constellation.
Each Full Moon actually moves a little less than 30 degrees during each lunar cycle, but 4,000 years ago, 30 degrees was a good enough approximation. In those days, when looking at the Moon, who could tell the difference between 30 degrees and 29.8 degrees? Or 29.1 degrees for that matter.
In other words, as the Moon traveled in the sky relative to the background of stars that were fixed, the Moon became a Full Moon about every 30 degrees that it traveled. In between those 30 degrees of travel, the Full Moon became a three-quarter Moon, a half Moon, a quarter Moon, and a New Moon. And then the Moon became a quarter Moon again and a half Moon again and a three-quarter Moon once again before becoming another Full Moon. And it did all of this in about 30 degrees of movement across the sky, which was the arc of each of the 12 zodiac constellations.
What this all meant was that each LUNAR CYCLE was 30 degrees. This discovery was one of the most important ones in all of astrology. This gave the Babylonians a reason to view the angle of 30 degrees and any multiple of it as having some kind of mystical power. Since there were 12 lunar cycles each year and each lunar cycle was 30 degrees, the Babylonians decided to divide the circle into 12 constellations instead of 10 or 5 or any other number. And this was also the reason that the Babylonians made each zodiac constellation the same size, 30 degrees. This way, with each lunar cycle, the Moon traveled from a particular degree in one zodiac constellation to the same degree in the next zodiac constellation.
The number 12, which was the number of zodiac constellations, became a somewhat mystical number to the Babylonians. In fact, the mysticism of this number was so pervasive that it even extended to surrounding cultures. For example, Christ had 12 disciples, and there were the 12 tribes of Israel. A group of 12 of anything was described as a dozen.
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