Secrets of the Deep Sky

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17 Peculiarities in Development of Ancient Astronomy

According to Scaliger's chronology, the ancient astronomy achieved an incredible level of development. It is considered that its peak was reached in the Almagest by the last greatest astronomer of the antiquity Claudius Ptolemy. After that, in Scaliger's chronology, the period of profound silence takes place. Arthur Berry, in his Short History of Astronomy states that the last important name associated with the ancient Greek astronomy was that of Ptolemy. The heights of the ancient astronomical knowledge were allegedly attained again only by astronomers in the Middle Ages during the epoch of Renaissance. In fact, it is portrayed that, in the antique world, the level of astronomical knowledge was so widespread and of such unbelievable stature that, it was even present among common people of that time. For example, a certain ancient consul in the Roman army was able to present to his regular soldiers a lecture on the scientific theory of lunar eclipses. In respect to this, that's what...

61 Seven Planets of Ancient Astronomy Zodiacs and Horoscopes

In today's astronomy there are the nine major planets known to revolve around the Sun Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among which the first five had been visible in the sky to the naked eye since ancient times. In old times Uranus, Neptune and Pluto were unknown. Uranus was discovered in 1781 by the English astronomer William Herschel. Neptune is the only giant gaseous planet that is not visible without a telescope. It was discovered in 1846 by John C. Adams and Urbain-Jean-Joseph Le Verrier. Pluto was found in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh. In primitive astronomy, the term planet was applied to the seven celestial bodies that were observed to move appreciably against the background of the apparently fixed stars. These included the Sun and Moon, as well as the five true planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn). Let us explain that until the heliocentric theory of Copernicus was established in the 16th century, the Sun and Moon were also...

On Astronomers

A few words must be. said about ascronomers and their text books. I have id my library a goodly cumber of astronomical texts. Pracrically each one carries, a chapter about astrology. Each of these books carries a special chapter in which it condemns astrology, being an absurd idea of a sick brain. Poor astronomer I always say to myself When these wizards of astronomy have completed their studies how the planecs, fixed stats and. comets niti around in the Universe, what have they to do afterwards in the way of study They can figure out their planec-ary positions for 100 or more years ahead which would save time educating new astronomers. I don't think they can ga2e all day and all night at the stars, just to have something to do, while Astrologers have an advantage over thenr in that they put their figures to practical use. Whatever is dead to them, abstract, we enliven and apply. Of course, we could do no work unless we had astronomers, so we ace dependent upon their calculations....

Astronomy

Astronomy is the branch of natural science that studies the celestial bodies. The word is a combination of astron, Greek for star, and nomos, Greek for law. Astrology was formerly part of astronomy, with astrological determinations being viewed as a practical application of astronomical knowledge. Prior to the modern period, all of the great astronomers were also astrologers, including such luminaries as Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler. Several hundred years ago, however, the two fields began to diverge, and today there are two distinct communities astrologers, who are largely ignorant of astronomy, and astronomers, who know almost nothing about astrology. For the most part, contemporary astronomers despise astrology as a medieval superstition. This is not, however, because astrology fails to pass empirical tests of validity, but because astronomers reject astrology out of hand. When skeptics have actually subjected astrology to empirical tests, they have found sometimes to their...

Chinese Mathematical Astrology

The ability to predict has always been, and remains, an important aim of science. In traditional China, astronomers devised methods of divination that were not only applied to natural events such as weather forecasting, but also to mundane human affairs. The three most sophisticated devices were shrouded in clouds of secrecy. During the eleventh century and for hundreds of years thereafter, candidates were examined on their knowledge of these devices behind the closed doors of the Chinese Astronomical Bureau. Ho Peng Yoke has published widely on Chinese alchemy, astronomy, divination and mathematics. He occupied senior academic positions in Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Australia and Hong Kong before becoming the Director of the Needham Research Institute in 1990. He is an academician of the Australian Academy of Humanities, Academia Sinica and the International Euro-Asia Academy of Science.

14 Medieval Anachronisms and Measuring Time in the Middle Ages

By the way, it is commonly believed that the Chinese astronomy achieved very high levels of sophistication thousand years B.C., while there is no evidence that time measuring devices were used for these purposes. In fact, there are some records showing that the Chinese rulers were not interested in such European inventions, like mechanical clocks, which were considered just as funny toys rather than precise time measuring pieces 24

The Practical Value Of Astrology

The modern astronomer divorces the spiritual aspect of the celestial science, Astrology, which he pooh-poohs an an exploded superstition, from the material phase, Astronomy, counting eight primary planets plus Pluto in our solar system-Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Earth, Venus, Mercury. He shows through the telescope that they exist and thinks he has proved that religion knows not whereof it speaks when it asserts that there are seven planets in the solar system. The Mystic, however, points to Bode's Law as vindicating his assertion that Neptune does not really belong to our solar system.

12 Who were the Critics of Scaligers Chronology

Stick Fiqure Issac Newton

The famous English mathematician, astronomer, physicist and scientist, Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) holds a special place among the critics of the Scaliger-Petavius chronology. He is considered to be the culminating figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century, who discovered a composition of white light, laid foundation of physical optics, established principles of mechanics, formulated the law of universal gravity, and discovered (independently of G. Leibnitz) differential and integral calculus. What is less known about Newton that he was also an author of serious works devoted to chronology problem, which led him to a conclusion that several main sections of the Scaliger version of chronology are erroneous. His main contributions to this area were A Short Chronicle from the First Memory of Things in Europe, to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great and The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended. By applying scientific approach, I. Newton radically rearranged the...

16 The Controversy over Ptolemys Almagest

It is traditionally assumed that Claudius Ptolemy was an Egyptian astronomer, mathematician, and geographer of Greek descent who worked in Alexandria during the 2nd century AD. His major astronomical work, the star catalogue Almagest contains the records of Ptolemy's astronomical observations. The Almagest was supposedly completed around the year 150 A.D. Ptolemy and Hipparchus (living presumably in the 2nd century A.D.) are considered to be the founders of the astronomical science. The Almagest, whose original name was Mathematike Syntaxis (The Mathematical Arrangement Almagest is an Arabic corruption of the Greek word megiste for greatest), is regarded as the most precious and immortal treasure of the ancient sciences. It contains observational data of more than 1000 stars, elaborated numerical tables that could be used for calculations of the planetary positions on arbitrary dates, and it describes a unified geocentric cosmological system that is assumed to have a profound...

History Of The Heavens

As the shepherds of old watched the starry arch of the night wheel majestically overhead, they took great comfort in the apparent constancy of the heavens. Save for an occasional meteor whose brilliant trail flashed across the void of space each heavenly lamp stayed firmly fixed in its niche. But as ancient astronomers mapped the skies they found five stars that were strangely different. Most stars always held the same position in the same constellation, they appeared to be fixed in place. These particular five stars did not appear stationary, instead they wandered through a certain band of constellations. Also while the fixed stars shone with a twinkling light, the five shone with a light that was steadier. The Greeks called them planets, or wanderers because unaccountably and mysteriously they drifted from night to night across the winking field of lights in their own fashion, coming and going, sometimes disappearing for weeks at a time. The Greeks did not realize then that these...

23 Our New Approach to Dating Egyptian Zodiacs

The novelty of this method lies in the fact that we can consider simultaneously all the possible decoding variants for a zodiac. This was not possible in previous attempts because the large number of the obtained results could not be reduced as the additional astronomical information was not properly understood. Consequently, the previous researchers were forced to choose only one variant of a decoded horoscope and to work with it. However, this new idea do not come without a price. With each additional variant of a horoscope, the amount of necessary computations increases sharply and the number of possible solutions can be very large, sometimes more than hundred. Every solution should be inspected and compared with the additional information on the zodiac. This procedure could not be completed without computers and usage of appropriate astronomical software. For our purposes, we had to develop a special astronomical program called Horos, which finds for a particular planetary...

161 Coordinate System used in the Almagest

The Almagest

Let us point out that Ptolemy adopted in the Almagest the so-called ecliptical coordinate system, which was believed by the medieval astronomers to be perpetual, i.e. it was assumed that the ecliptical latitudes of stars were not subjected to any change in time, while the longitudes were increasing steadily, what was caused by the cyclic precession of the Earth's axis of rotation. However, the systematic and considerable latitudinal shift was discovered by the astronomer J. Bode (1747-1826), which puts the Almagest's traditional dating in doubt. nates are much easier to measure than the ecliptical ones. At the time of Ptolemy and in the 15th-17th century period, astronomers believed that the ecliptical coordinates are eternal, what turned out to be wrong. Ptolemy also believed that stars do not possess their own movements and that their configurations on the sky are invariable. But this claim also was not correct. In the mid-18th century it was discovered that the star Arcturus...

Uranus Neptune And Pluto

The distant planets of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, more recent discoveries of modern astronomy, are not usually used in Vedic astrology, and quite effective readings can be done without them. Most of the influences they represent are determined in Vedic astrology according to the lunar nodes. Pluto is very much like Ketu. It represents the negative side of Mars and is a psychic, willful planet. Its influence is similarly mysterious, destructive, negative, manipulative. It can lead us into danger or suffering, even death. Uranus, like Rahu, is related to Saturn but does not so easily correspond to it as does Pluto to Ketu. Rahu is something like Neptune and Uranus combined. Rahu has the imaginative hallucinogenic side of Neptune along with energizing, shocking power of Uranus. The influence of Uranus is eccentric, erratic, disturbing and strongly individualizing force. It can force us into spiritual changes but may just derange us if we are not conscious of its power. Neptune relates to...

Horary Astrology [continued

Horary Astrology may also be used to select a favorable time for commencing an important undertaking, for the starting point of an enterprise is its birth, and the influences then governing will be powerful determinators of success or failure. It is said that the Royal Astronomer who laid the corner-stone for the Observatory at Greenwich used this method, and that has certainly been a very useful and successful institution.

163 Statistical Analysis of the Star Catalogue Almagest

Let us return to the investigation of the Almagest conducted by astronomer R. Newton's. It is important to emphasize that Newton never, at any moment, doubted the correctness of Scaliger's chronology. His conclusions can be summarized as follows statement that Ptolemy was not an outstanding astronomer of antiquity but rather a most successful swindler in the history of science41.

54Planetary Symbols of the Main Horoscope 541 Planetary Walking Stick

Sarcophagus Symbols

Let us recall that a walking stick in medieval symbolism was used to indicate a traveler. Probably, for the same reason, in the Egyptian astronomy, a walking stick was chosen as an attribute of a planet. In the old times, the planets were considered to be traveling stars. Indeed, for an observer, who at that time had no telescope, the planets looked exactly as stars with the only noticeable difference that they were changing their positions with respect to the fixed stars. The real stars practically do not change their positions with respect to each other and the same configurations of In old chronicles, planets were described as wandering stars5 and today's modern world planet originated from the Greek word planetes, which means wanderer. We've already explained that, in ancient astronomy, the Sun and Moon were also considered as planets, because they are moving around the ecliptic in the same common planetary direction. In this book we will also refer to the Sun and Moon as planets....

That The Passions Of The Mind Are Assisted By Celestialsand That Constancy Of Mind Is In Every Work Necessary

THE doctrines of mathematics are so necessary to and have such an affinity with magic, that they who profess it without them are quite out of the way, and labour in vain, and shall in no wise obtain their desired effect. For whatsoever things are, and are done in these inferior natural virtues, are all done and governed by number, weight, measure, harmony, motion, and light and all things which we see in these inferiors have root and foundation in them yet, nevertheless, without natural virtues of mathematical doctrines, only works like to naturals can be produced as Plato saith-- a thing not partaking of truth or divinity, but certain images akin to them (as bodies going, or speaking, which yet want the animal faculty), such as were those which, amongst the ancients, were called Dedalus's images, and a t iata, of which Aristotle makes mention, viz. the three-footed images of Vulcan and Dedalus moving themselves which, Homer saith, came out of their own accord to the exercise and...

63 Movement of Planets Among Zodiac Constellations

Before we explain how is possible, with a help of a horoscope, to record in a unique, or almost unique way, a date of an event, we will recall some basic facts from astronomy. When observing the night sky, we have an impression that we are surrounded by an imaginary sphere (called celestial sphere) extending outward from the Earth for an infinite distance and whose surface is filled with fixed stars. It is not difficult to notice that this sphere appears to rotate slowly. Today we know that this effect is created by the rotation of the Earth around its axis, around which the celestial sphere also seems to revolve. However, for the early astronomers the Earth was in the center of the universe surrounded by this slowly revolving celestial sphere, on which the stars seem to be fixed. The term celestial sphere is still used in the modern astronomy in spite of the fact that it doesn't exist Nevertheless, it is convenient for the astronomical analysis of the observable planetary motions and...

The Dissemination In The West

TE have seen the Pan-Baby lonist mist, * which obscured the historical horizon, vanish before the breath of criticism. It is not the fact that thousands of years before our era the Chaldeans constructed a learned and profound cosmology, which established its authority over all surrounding peoples. But their share in the intellectual and religious development of antiquity remains none the less most considerable. They are the creators of chronology and astronomy. They contrived to enlarge their theology progressively in order to keep it in harmony with their new conception of the world, and their astrology was regarded as the method of divination par excellence. Their conquests in the realm of science won such prestige for their beliefs that they spread from the Far East to the Far West, and even now their sway has not been wholly overthrown. In 73 of every nationality. It is possible that this theological Pharaoh was led by the influence of Semitic star-worship to impose his attempt...

66 Principal Accuracy of the Computations of the Past Planetary Positions

For the calculations of the visible from the Earth positions of the Sun, Mercury, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars and Venus, we used the computational program PLANETAP, written in the language FORTRAN by French astronomers J.L. Simon, P. Bretagnon, J. Chapront, M. Chapront-Touze, G. Francou, and J. Laskar, from le Bureau des Longitudes in Paris, which was published in the astronomical journal Astronomy and Astrophysics in 199411.

Astrological Literature Under The Early Empire

What does seem obvious is that Valens is attempting to be comprehensive. This was clearly not the case with Ptolemy, author of surviving works of astronomy, geography and philosophy, who wrote his Tetrabiblos (in four books) on astrology. The observations in his astronomical work Almagest, which is usually seen as the culmination of ancient astronomical achievements, belong to the years 127 to 41 CE and were made from the region of Alexandria. Of the two means of prediction through astronomy, Syrus, two are most important and valid. One, which is first both in order and effectiveness, is that by which we apprehend the aspects of the movements of Sun, Moon and stars in relation to each other and to the earth, as they occur at any time the second is that in which by means of the natural character of these phenomena themselves, we investigate the changes which they bring about in that which they surround. The first of these, which has its own science i.e. astronomy , desirable in itself...

Gurdjieff George Ivanovitch

George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff (1866 -1949) was not an astrologer. However, his cosmology was largely derived from Western European occult sources and has much in common with the popular Theosophical cosmology astrology of his day. Gurdjieff's two primary cosmological laws, the Law of Seven and the Law of Three, have their origins in Mesopotamian astronomy astrology, echoes of which are also found in Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and in Western European occult and esoteric thinking derived from Pythagoras.

Basic Features Of Jupiter

The whole of our system is imperceptibly shifting its position in space, the relative distance between the planets remaining ever the same, and being in no wise affected by the displacement of the whole system and the distance between the latter and the stars and other suns being so incommensurable as to produce but little, if any, perceptible change for centuries and millennia to come, no astronomer will perceive it telescopically, until Jupiter and some other planets, whose little luminous points hide now from sight millions upon millions of stars (all but some 5,000 or 6,000) will suddenly let us have a peep at a few of the Raja Suns they are now hiding. There is such a King Star right behind Jupiter that no mortal physical eye has ever seen during this our Round. Could it be so perceived, it would appear, through the best telescope with a power of multiplying its diameter 10,000 times, still a small dimensionless point thrown into the shadow by the brightness of any planet...

History of Western Astrology

The investigation of the heavenly bodies, in the forms that are now distinguished as astrology and astronomy, began in the European world at the beginning of Greek civilization. The word astrology comes from the Greek astron, meaning star, and logos, meaning study). The study of the stars had both scientific and religious purposes. The rhythms of the stars provided the basis for calculating calendars. The stars also represented a kind of natural watch in a clockless age and provided spatial reference points, important for such practical matters as navigation. Ptolemy, one of the most influential intellectuals in the history of Western astrology, also lived in Alexandria in the second century. His main works were the Almagest (Greek, meaning greatest) and the Tetrabiblos (Quadripartitum in Latin). The Almagest was an astronomy work that taught how to predict celestial phenomena, mostly through the use of mathematics. The Tetrabiblos became a major text for astrologers and occultists in...

What Are The Stars In Qimen Dunjia

The importance of the above cannot be given more emphasis than by an example of an examination question from the traditional Chinese Astronomical Bureau given in the Mishujianzhi iftltiiJfe (Annals of the Secretariat). The question on the Qimen Dunjia system for admission as astronomy students (tianwensheng 'X'iL) into the Astronomical Bureau of that time was in the nature of a 'stock' question that read A different fortnightly period might be substituted for the winter solstice for different examinations. This was meant to be an essay-type question to test both the candidate's knowledge and his ability to express himself in good literary style. The Astronomical Bureau would enlist successful candidates as astronomy students and train them to interpret prognostications for meteorological forecasting.

542 Saturn in the Main Horoscope

In order to explain this answer, let us point out that on the Round zodiac, just under this figure, there is another similar figure with a crescent on the head holding a scythe instead of a walking stick (see Figure 5.28). That figure is a part of the partial horoscope for the autumn equinox, so the planetary walking stick is not a requirement in this case. Except for the object held in their hands, these two figures are completely identical, so they definitely indicate the same planet. Just from this connection, one can deduct that this planet is probably Saturn, because it moves so slowly that during the whole year its position usually stays inside the same zodiac constellation. Consequently, the positions of Saturn in the main and the partial horoscopes coincide. However, we can definitely recognize Saturn in this figure, because it is well-known that the scythe was an attribute of Saturn in old astronomy. For example, there are many pictures in medieval astronomy books showing...

Aspect Interpretation Chart

Do not confuse the transit of the Moon with the progression of the Moon which encompasses 2 1 2 years in each sign. This concept may seem a little confusing at first, but in actuality it is quite simple. Within the real motion of the Moon there are two separate movements to be considered. The Progressed Moon, which travels through the entire Zodiac once every 29 years spending 2 1 2 years in each sign, and the transiting Moon which takes roughly 2 1 2 days to travel each sign, or approximately 29 days through the entire Zodiac. (The reasons for this difference in motion are the subject of Astronomy. For your purposes just remember that the Moon has two motions - transiting and progressed.)

Proofs of Astrology Why

Although many modern astrologers (as well as non-astrologers) are conducting statistical studies of astrological premises, we must realize that we cannot count on a statistical approach to explain everything for many areas of experience and qualities inherent in life are not amenable to such a study. In fact, even when a statistical study does reveal correlations of great significance, they often still do not explain the operation of the phenomenon itself. For example, there are certain empirical laws in science which are found by experiment to be true but for which no rational explanation has so far been provided. The best example of such laws in astronomy is what is known as Bode's Law. This relates to the distances of planets from the sun. If we write a series of numbers 0, 3,6,12,24,48, 96, and if we then add 4 to each term, we get 4, 7, 10, 16, 28, 52, 100. Bode's Law states that the distances of the planets are in the ratio of these numbers that is, if the distance of Mercury...

Morin Jean Baptiste Morinus

Celestial matter and proposed three layers of earth, which corresponded in reverse order to the three regions of the air. He criticized Ptolemy, rejected Cardan and Kepler, and denied the existence of a vacuum and Toricelli's proof thereof. He advocated the medicine of Paracelsus and opposed the heliocentric astronomy of Copernicus.

Anomalistic Period Anomaly Anomalistic Year

For a planet, an anomalistic period is the time between two successive perihelions (the point in a planet's orbit where it is closest to the Sun). For the Moon, an anomalistic period is the time between two successive perigees (the point where it is closest to Earth). The expression anomalistic period is derived from anomaly, which in astronomy refers to the angular distance of a planet from its perihelion or its aphelion. By extension, an anomalistic year is the period between Earth's perihelions, which is

Astrology Modern Research In Energy Fields

Gustaf Stromberg, an American astronomer of world reknown, was one of the first to go into this idea of rhythms and frequencies. He postulated the idea that the structure of living organisms is determined by 'wave systems' or plusing 'elec-trodynamic living fields'. These fields seem to be the matrix which gives living matter its form and shape by organizing the molecules into complex forms of plants, animals, and humans. Wounds heal, and damaged organs rebuild themselves to their original symmetry. This implies a stabilizing energy pattern responsible for shaping living tissue. (p. 125 ABC)

Traditional Chinese Astrology

In our modern age, what is regarded as Chinese astrology generally refers to fate-calculation. The most sophisticated systems of fate-calculation are the Ziping method described in Appendix II and the Ziwei dousbu method referred to in Chapter 3. Knowledge of astronomy and an ability to identify stars in the night sky are not essential in these methods. Traditional Chinese astrology would however require knowledge of astronomy. Both in Europe and in China, the word 'astronomy' in the past used to include what is now known as 'astrology'. However, while in Europe astronomy and astrology parted company with the coming of the scientific revolution, in traditional China the two never separated from each other and remained together to the very end until their 'astronomy' component was replaced by modern astronomy. Another characteristic of Chinese astrology is that, unlike Western judicial astrology, it did not draw up horoscopes to read the destiny of individuals. This is the traditional...

Vedic Astrology Hindu Astrology

Hindu astrology, or Vedic astrology, as it is more commonly referred to by its practitioners, has made tremendous inroads into the Western astrological community in recent years. The origins of Vedic astrology are primarily in India and have flourished for several thousand years. According to modern Vedic scholars, a continuous record of basic astrological knowledge can be traced back to 2500 b.c.e. and the Indus Valley region. As one of the true systems of astrology, Vedic astrology is renowned for its spiritual depth and accuracy in predicting future events. Based on the sidereal zodiac, it reflects an astronomer's perception of the movement of planets through the constellations.

Electric planets v Planets

An almanac listing the ephemeral or rapidly changing position which each of the solar system bodies will occupy on each day of the year their Longitude, Latitude, Declination, and similar astronomical phenomena. The astronomer's Ephemeris lists these positions in heliocentric terms that of the astrologer, in geocentric terms. A set of Ephemerides which includes the year of the native's birth, is essential in the erection of a horoscope. Ephemerides were first devised by astrologers to facilitate the erection of a horoscope. Finally, when they became of common use to navigators and astronomers, they were given official recognition by the Government, and issued as the Nautical Almanac. The oldest almanac in the British Museum bears the date 1431. It is said that Columbus navigated by the aid of an Astrologer's Ephemeris. Equinox. A point in the Earth's annual orbit around the Sun, at which the polar inclination is at right angles to a line drawn between the...

64 Partition of the Zodiac Belt into Zodiac Constellations

Therefore, during its yearly trip the Sun, Moon and the planets, move along the large circle on the celestial sphere, which in astronomy is called the ecliptic. The stars surrounding the ecliptic are grouped in the so called zodiacal constellations. In this way, we obtain a circular belt of constellations encompassing the firmament around the ecliptic. The letter J in the word J2000 is simply a reminder that in astronomy the time is measured in Julian years3 There is another method of measuring the time in astronomy, which we also used in our calculations, namely in Julian days of the Scaliger period or simply in Julian day numbers. Beginning with the year 4713 B.C,, J. Scaliger decided to number all the days. For example the Julian day of April 1, 1400 A.D., corresponds to the number 22324074.

John De Morys And Nicholas Oresme

Jean de Murs (often Latinized Iohannes de Muris or Anglicized as John de Morys) was a prominent Parisian astronomer and arithmetician of the first half of the fourteenth century. One of John's several claims to fame is the construction of a fifteen foot radius Kardaja for astronomical observation. By way of comparison, Tycho Brahe employed one of only six foot and nine inch radius, although Dr John Dee (two centuries later) was reputed to have had a sextant of some forty feet radius. John de Morys combined the study of astronomy with that of its terrestrial sibling, geomancy. Amongst manuscripts possibly attributable to John is one in which the sixteen geomantic figures are related in detail to the planets and

Chorography Mundane Astrology

Ptolemy includes in this book on 'catholic' astrology, apart from the astrology of cities and regions, events which affect whole areas, whether they are disasters like war, famine, plague, earthquakes and floods, or normal meteorological variations and their effects on agriculture. Astro-meteorology is yet another sub-discipline, which could be seen as just a province of astronomy, which had investigated from the beginning the link between the stars and the seasons, and in particular the agricultural year. It is also one of the parts of astrology which became part of high literary culture from Aratus' poem onwards. There was however debate, as we have already seen in the writings of Geminus, (Chapter 2) about whether the stars were causes of meteorological events, or simply signs of the progress of the seasons, and thus of corresponding meteorological events. Those ancient geographers and astronomers with no interest in mundane astrology estimated parallels of latitude corresponding...

Brunos Symbolism

Thus a stringed instrument may be raised or lowered in pitch without in any way affecting its manipulation or the relative value of its notes. Similarly the distances of the planets from the Sun may be increased or reduced from what we now assume them to be, without in the least affecting our astronomy or altering in any way the relative distances of the various bodies from their common centre. In a manifest universe there is no such thing as an absolute standard, everything is relative. We see and know things only in relation to one another. It has been said, for instance, that the

Chinese Astrology Yijing

Another characteristic of the traditional Chinese calendar is the naming of the year. Early Chinese kings or emperors named the years after their own reigns, and so did the first few emperors of the Zhou dynasty. By the time of the Spring-and-Autumn period, the influence of the feudal princes increased as the power of the monarchy declined. Each feudal prince used a calendar named after his own reign within his own state. The Zuozhuan Efll and the Guoyu Hip, for example, adopt the calendar of the State of Lu. There was a need of some uniformity with so many different calendars in operation at the same period. Noticing Jupiter to return to the same spot in the heavens in about 12 years, 12 zones were marked along the equator, such that Jupiter would travel within one zone in 1 year and move over to the next in the following year and that winter solstice would lie at the centre of the first zone. The first zone was called Xingji JUE, followed in the west to east direction by Xuanxiao 2...

Astrology Under The Principate

The first book, after a brief account of cosmological speculations, concluding with the view that the Earth is composed of four elements, offers an elementary description of the heavens and ends with a discussion of comets as omens. It seems to visualise the Babylonians as the originators of astronomy and the Egyptians as the inventors of astrology. In the mention of the 'kings' and 'priests' who were responsible, there is presumably a poetic allusion to Nechepso and Petosiris. Book 2 gives the characteristics of the signs of the zodiac, expounds their geometrical relationships, the zodiacal and planetary dodecatemories, the cardinal points, the Twelve Places and the Eight Places. Book 3 describes the twelve Lots, the rising times and the Time-Lords, explains how to calculate the length of life, and concludes with a discussion of tropic signs. The fourth book gives an account of the characteristics of the zodiac signs imparted to the native, describes the decans and the influences of...

Ancient Astrology Summary

The omen-literature of ancient Mesopotamia included matter concerning the heavens, and when it was combined with the astronomical data derived from attempts to construct a calendar, horoscopal astrology developed, of which we have evidence from the fourth century BCE or slightly earlier. With the increased contact between this area and the Greek world after Alexander's conquest of Persia, both the zodiac, in the fourth century BCE, and Babylonian data and methods in astronomy and astrology, in the following centuries, were absorbed by the Greeks. They transformed both astronomy and astrological cosmology with kinematic models of the universe. True, the impact of such models on astrology should not be exaggerated the major developments of astrological theory, as we shall see when we examine them, were obviously made on the basis of a flat diagram. Nevertheless, these cosmologies were important to the constructions of the universe in the more mystical branch of astrology, associated...

Astrology In The Thirteenth And Fourteenthcentury Kingdom Of Aragon

The study of astrology began in antiquity and continued to the modern era. Specifically in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, this pseudo-science became an interest, and in some cases a passion, of knowledgeable men kings, princes, those employed by the royal court, doctors, and theologians. Unlike the classical and Renaissance study of astrology, medieval enthusiasts who studied the constellations did not clearly delineate between astrology, astronomy, and alchemy, all of which they brought together in their teachings and written works. This feature was due to the Arabic influence that insisted on observing a series of points or parts of the sky, rather than the Greek practice of concentration on the individual heavenly bodies. The Catalan writers, their rulers, and several Jewish and Christian astrologers and translators employed by the kings of Aragon studied the works of Greek, Arabic, and Persian astronomers and astrologers. These works include Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, or...

22 Why Egyptologists Avoid Astronomical Dating of Egyptian Zodiacs

We have already explained that if on an old zodiac there are shown planets among the zodiac constellations, or in other words, if there is a horoscope contained in the zodiac, then there is sufficient evidence to consider this zodiac as an astronomical record of a certain date. Today, with help of modern astronomy and computers, we are able to decipher these dates, or at least, suggest possible variants for such dates. This is, in general, the basic idea of the astronomical dating of old zodiacs. This idea is not new. On the turn of the 18th century, when European scientists, following the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt, gained for the first time an access to Egypt, they discovered a number of ancient zodiacs. When these zodiacs became known in Europe, they immediately attracted a lot of attention by European historians and astronomers, who recognized their definite astronomical character. The scientists realized that this was a unique opportunity to calculate some of the exact dates...

31 History of Dating of the Denderah Zodiacs

The first attempts to astronomically date the Round and Long Denderah zodiacs took place in the 19th century following their publication in Europe. Some variants of their decoding were suggested by Egyptologists of that time, in particular by the famous German Egyptologist Henry Brugsch. His decoding was based on the interpretation of the figures and his translations of the inscriptions, which were placed above some of the figures symbolizing planets. It was quickly observed that on the Denderah zodiacs, as well as on other Egyptian zodiacs, all the planets, except the Sun and Moon (which in the ancient astronomy were considered as planets), were usually shown as travelers with walking sticks. Planets in ancient astronomy were regarded as moving stars1. Let us notice that even in English the world planet originated from the Greek word planetes - nXavqT'qZ which means wanderer or traveler, so it is not surprising that the planets on Egyptian zodiacs were also symbolized by figures...

Unusual Properties of the Planet Uranus

Uranus's propensity for being different from the norm becomes more apparent when we consider the physical properties of the planet Uranus itself. The book Astronomy Made Simple points out four ways that Uranus is unique.3 All four seem to me to be related to the meanings of Uranus. Second, Uranus was discovered by accident while William Herschel, an amateur astronomer, was making other observations. It is fitting that Uranus was revealed first to an amateur rather than to the scientific establishment astrologically, Uranus is an antiestablishment force in our lives. 3 Meir Degani, Astronomy Made Simple, Doubleday 1966, p. 163. In these four ways, the planet Uranus is the rule-breaker of astronomy, and many Uranians believe that rules are made to be broken. They often feel they are so unique that rules don't apply to them. In another solar system, however, Uranus might be the rule rather than the exception that is, in some solar systems, all planets might rotate backwards and sideways....

Ptuto The Power of Transformation

Pluto is small, rocky, and so mysterious that astronomers aren't sure what to make of it. Its elongated orbit, which is tilted to the rest of the solar system, overlaps the orbit of Neptune. As a result, from 1979 to 1999, Pluto was closer to the Sun than Neptune. Pluto's major moon, Charon, is so relatively large that some astronomers classified Pluto as a double planet. (That was before they decided it was a dwarf.) Other astronomers believed it to be an asteroid far away from home, a chunk of rock left over from the creation of the solar system, or a renegade moon that once belonged to Neptune. Regardless of its classification, astrologers agree that Pluto represents something profound in human nature. I'm partial to the second, more mundane symbol, which has its origins in the world of science. That symbol (see Figure 10-3) represents both the first two letters of Pluto's name and the initials of the aristocratic astronomer Percival Lowell, who was so convinced that there was life...

Kepler College of Astrological Arts and Sciences

The first class started July 20, 2000. The distance learning with symposia program enables students from every state and nation to attend Kepler College. The college's interdisciplinary curriculum is comprised of history, philosophy, cultural anthropology, mythology, comparative religion, psychology, astronomy, mathematics, logic, statistics, ethics, and systems theory, with all subjects taught through the lens of astrology. Kepler students not only explore various astrological theories and techniques used throughout history to the present, but critical thinking and open debate are important aspects of the program as well. Kepler's curriculum challenges its students to explore, reason, experience, research, create, write, publish, and become contributing members of society.

Lesson 1 Introduction

Astrology is the science that explores the action of celestial bodies upon animate and inanimate objects, and their reactions to such influences. Astrology has its place among the earliest records of human learning. It is the parent of astronomy for many years they were one science. Now, astronomy is a science of distances, magnitudes, masses, motions, speeds, locations, and so on, based upon observations made with instruments like the telescope. Astronomy may therefore be termed an objective science, while astrology must be termed a subjective science. Thus, the charting of the horoscope is really an astronomical process the judgment or delineation of the horoscope is an astrological process. Astrology also deals with angles between the planets and Thus signs are calculated from what astrologers call the Aries ingress, or the point at which the Sun reaches 0 Aries. This point is now located in the constellation Pisces. We mention this here, right at the beginning, because you will...

Brutish signs v Signs

Abuse of power by the pontiffs and the many wars of conquest prior to the Christian era finally so disrupted the Roman calendar that after his conquest of Egypt Julius Caesar brought to Rome a Greek astronomer, Sosigines, who with the aid of Marcus Fabius accomplished the first great calendar reform, the Julian calendar, named after himself, which went into effect through the civilized world in 45 B.C., and continued in use until 1582 A.D. These reforms consisted of the following A century later Aloysius Lilius, a Verona physician and astronomer and doubtless an astrologer, worked out what he believed to be the exact requirements for a calendar that would keep step with the seasons. After his death his brother presented the plan to Pope Gregory XII, who gathered a group of learned men to discuss it, including Clavius, who later wrote an 800-page Treatise explaining it. Thus it was that after five years of study the Gregorian calendar was put into effect in 1582, instituting the...

Jupiter through the zodiac

Aquarian independence will be in evidence, but these are extremely friendly people who enjoy a rewarding social life with a great many friends and acquaintances. Impartiality, tolerance, and a good understanding of human nature make them sympathetic yet unbiased in outlook and opinion. There will be an abundance of originality, and enthusiasm for scientific interests and technology - often for astronomy and space. Jupiter in Aquarius tends to suggest a picture of a zany professor.

Cosmic Music

EVER SINCE the Russian Sputnik went into the orbit, interest in the stellar world has greatly increased. This hits not, however, given mankind either the insight into the working of the Divine Plan, or the necessary moral courage to face the trials and tribulations of everyday life. But it is vital tiiat we come to an understanding of the rules regulating the universe around us. and this cannot happen so long as occult sciences are not properly acknow ledged and assigned proper importance among the other modem sciences. This fact was foreseen by the Russian occultist Madame H.P. Blavatsky. who in the last quarter of the 19th century staled that astrology must be recognized as the soul of astronomy unless the latter is to produce nothing beyond materiality, Today, the scientists talk emphatically about astronomy and its achievements, but they show reluctance in accepting the truth about astrology. In doing so, the masses and the scientists, both will have to acknowledge the existence...

The History Of Astrology

Birth of Christ was not so much the result of the antagonism of the Christian Church as because of the decline of classical learning. New books from Greece concerned themselves more with astronomy than astrology (the two terms gradually acquired very different meanings), while some were simply not translated into Latin and therefore had no effect in Western Europe. Those astrological books which were translated often lacked sections describing how to set up a horoscope. The Astronomica of Manilius (fl. 1st century), for instance, is an astonishing poem about astronomy and astrology. While it contains versified calculations showing how to draw a map of the sky for a particular moment, it does not explain how to interpret such a chart. Similarly, Boethius (c450-524) asserts But it was in the Islamic world that the subject became an almost all-consuming passion. Islamic philosophers found justification in the Koran for the study of astrology as an instrument of God's Will. The invention...

Alexander The Great

As we turn from Greece towards Rome, it is in Alexandria that one man drew together all the skeins of astrological theory and did his best to rationalize them in a single book. Claudius Ptolemsus (c100-c178ce) -known simply as Ptolemy - arrived there to teach at the university that had been founded 400 years earlier. Ptolemy is famous as a mathematician, astronomer, and geographer, and his Almagest became the acknowledged textbook of astronomy for several centuries after his death. Ptolemy provides us with the major Classical texts of both astronomy and astrology. Ptolemy provides us with the major Classical texts of both astronomy and astrology.

Astraea

Astraea, asteroid 5 (the 5th asteroid to be discovered, on December 8, 1845, by the German amateur astronomer Karl Ludwig Hencke), is approximately 120 kilometers in diameter and has an orbital period of 4.1 years. Astraea was named after the Roman goddess of justice (the familiar blindfolded goddess who holds the scales of justice in one hand and a sword in the other), viewed as the Roman form of the Greek Dike. According to Martha Lang-Wescott, Astraea indicates where people have difficulty letting go of relationships and situations, as well as a sense of loose ends afterward. This asteroid's key words are open-ended and witness. Jacob Schwartz gives the astrological significance of this asteroid as problems with closure, difficulties setting limits. According to Barry McKenna, Astraea represents the most important individual needs, for which one must take exceptional personal responsibility. At the same time, it is easy for the needs indicated by this asteroid to be set aside...

Zodiaque Denderah

This double appearance of the inferior planets on the Egyptian horoscopes, i.e. a two-faced Mercury and a two-figure Venus, can be explained from the astronomical point of view. The appearances of each of these two inferior planets alternate among mornings and evenings only. These morning and evening appearances are separated by periods of invisibility, which in the beginning of the ancient astronomy was considered as a physical disappearance of the planet. The reappearance of the planet was seen as the birth of a new morning or evening planet. After some time it was realized that the same planet was observed in the mornings and the evenings, which was simply invisible in between. For example, in ancient Greece, Mercury was called Apollo when it appeared as a morning star and Hermes, when it appeared as an evening star. This old belief left its traces in the ancient Egyptian

Latitude

In Astronomy, the distance a planet is North or South of the ecliptic, or Sun's path. Were originally invented by Lord Napier to make arithmetical calculations easy. They were later adapted to the decimal system, and are used by astronomers who calculate directions by arc. But for calculation of the planets' places by Longitude and in relation to the day of twenty-four hours, it is necessary to calculate a special set, which will be found in the back of our ephemeris. By use of them multiplication is performed by addition, and division by subtraction.

Ascendant Cancer

Hard worker. Suffers from too many changes of direction. Libra Needs to work in partnership, but should take the lead. Beauty, fashion, or entertainment industries. Scorpio Will pursue career with tenacity and discipline. Hard worker. Scientific flair. Astronomy, archeology, or antiques. Sagittarius Slightly unpredictable, but superb teacher or lecturer. Writer, innovator and or inventor. Pisces Very creative and artistic. Career or hobby should involve the arts in some form.

Robert Of Chester

In a British Museum manuscript,'one of Plato of Tivoli 's translations is preceded by a translation of the Judgements of the astrologer Alkindi by one Robert of Chester.11 Little is known of Robert except that he was an English mathematician, astronomer, alchemist and translator

Hugh Of Santalla

Hugh Santalla

The first geomancy translated into Latin from Arabic was Hugh of Santalla's Ars Geomantiae. Hugh of Santalla (or Hugo Sanctelliensis) was an astrologer, alchemist and translator of the first half of the twelfth century born in Santalla in northwest Spain. He appears to have worked under the patronage of Michael the bishop of Tarazona, from 1119 to 1157. Although he to some extent translated the same works as his contemporaries, for instance the Centiloquium ascribed to Ptolemy (Latin versions of which have also been credited to Plato of Tivoli and John of Seville), he appears to have worked independently of the Toledo translators. Hugh's translations are undated but at least some of them, including his Ars Geomantiae, antedated the work of his more famous contemporaries. Hugh's seven known translations are concerned with works of astronomy, astrology and divination. Those on astrology include Albumasar's Book of Rains, Messahala on nativities, a book by pseudo-Aristotle, 'from 255...

Ayanamsha

Personally I prefer the system of Shri Yukteswar, the guru of Paramahansa Yogananda, from his book, THE HOLY SCIENCE, as he was both an astrologer and a Self-realized soul. He begins the cycle with 499 A.D. and makes it a 24,000 year cycle, according to the Vedic theory of the four yugas. B.V. Raman's calculations are very close to this and J.N. Bhasin's are not far either. Astronomy places the cycle at 25,800 years (and a rate of movement around 50.3) but admits fluctuations that make the period a matter of speculation. One can choose the Ayanamsha one finds best. The rationales of the different systems can be studied on their own. For ordinary planetary positions it seldom

Ascendant scorpio

Scorpios Are Hard Workers

Libra Will express charm during working hours. All luxury trades, television industry, beautician. Scorpio Conservation, anthropology, astronomy, scientific research fact-finding. Sagittarius Airlines, travel industry university lecturer, solicitor. Needs stability, but with freedom of expression.

The Personal Planets

Contemplating the personal planets in astronomy, mythology, and astrology Understanding the planets in the signs To ancient astrologers, that meant noting the positions of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn the only planets visible from Earth. For thousands of years, stargazers assumed that there were no other planets. Then, in 1781, an amateur astronomer in England discovered another planet, and the race was on. Today, astronomers argue over how many planets there are in the solar system. Some claim there are only eight. Others insist there are 23 and counting. The answer depends entirely on whom you ask.

Tropic

'Tropikos' is a Greek word which has a meaning relative to turning, and the tropics of Astronomy are the turning points of the Sun. At the summer solstice the Sun reaches its highest degree of Northern Declination in the sign Cancer this then is its tropic, for from that point it begins to turn downwards to its Western node, and goes into Southern Declination. It reaches the lowest point of that arc in December at the winter Solstice in the sign Capricorn. This is the other tropic, for there again it turns and commences its next ascent towards the Northern heavens.

Summary

In this chapter we have looked at astrology in the context of the Roman Empire. We have been able to trace the arrival of the learned version of astrology, though we know much less about the kind of astrology which would have appealed to the person in the street. Astrology came to Rome as part of Greek high culture, backed by philosophy, literature and astronomy. Elite Romans seem not to have taken it seriously until the last century BCE. It is at this time that we begin to find generals prepared to listen to astrologers, and even some Romans becoming astrologers themselves. I argued that the timing of astrology's rise in profile at Rome just as the old Republican oligarchy gave way to the rule of one man, was no coincidence, in

Hunter Kelley

Kelley Hunter has studied the sky as a professional astrologer, mythologist, and amateur astronomer for over 30 years. An internationally known astrologer, she is a speaker at national and international conferences and was the cofounder of the Roots of Astrology experiential conferences. She is the astrologer-in-residence for the Omega Institute programs in the Caribbean and on the faculty of the Self Centre at Caneel Bay resort. Holding degrees in drama and in depth psychology creative communica

Kepler Johannes

Johannes Kepler, the last Western astronomer of note to believe in astrology, was born on January 6, 1571, in Weil, W rttemberg, Germany. He studied the elliptical orbits of the planets and discovered the three laws of planetary motion that were to lead to Newton's law of universal gravitation. In 1600, Kepler became assistant to Tycho Brahe, succeeding him as court astronomer to Rudolf II. Kepler was deeply mystical, and many of his astronomical discoveries were motivated by a desire to demonstrate that a neoplatonic Pythagorean mathematical order governed the heavens. The son of peasants, Kepler erected horoscopes and published almanacs to supplement his income as court astronomer. On the title page of De fundamentis, Kepler inscribed, Discover the force of Heavens O Men once recognized it can be put to use. He asserted that astrological influence is so convincing that it can be denied only by those who had not examined it. He also said, We cannot deny the influence of the stars,...

Finding their Voice

The social life at university will hold above average attraction. Aquarians are the type to join the astronomy club, the drama group, or something else, and such activities will become central to their lives. Similarly, if they are interested in sport, this can become more important than their studies. While the young women - and to a certain extent the young men too -will like glamorous, trendy clothes, and be eager to show off at every opportunity, they are not stupid with money. In theory, they should leave university with manageable debts.

Eschatology

TN the previous lecture we showed how, to the * astronomer theologians, contemplation of the sky had become the source of a mystic union with the divine stars. The sublime joys of ecstasy, which brings man into communion with the sidereal gods, give him but a foretaste of the bliss which is in store for him when after death his soul, ascending to the celestial spheres, shall penetrate all their mysteries. The transient exaltation, which illumines his intelligence here below, is a dim foreshadowing of the intoxication which will be wrought in him by the immediate prospect of the stars and the full comprehension of truth. The most ideal pursuits of the sage in this world are but a faint adumbration of a blessedness which will be perfected in the life to come. been transported to heaven in reward for their exploits. Hercules, Perseus and Andromeda, the Dioscuri Castor and Pollux, and many others had thus been metamorphosed into constellations. Cat aster ism forms the dinodment of a...

Prometheus

Tarnas's ideas have received widespread acceptance in the astrological community. Astrologers who hesitate accepting an exception to the widely held principle that the name given to a celestial body by an astronomer synchronistically corresponds with its archetypal meaning might note that the mythological Uranus is related to the astro

Pythagoras

The Macrocosm And The Microcosm

Pythagoras, a Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer, lived from approximately 580 to 500 b.c.e. Pythagoras was the first to conceive of the heliocentric theory of the universe (the notion that Earth and the planets revolve around the Sun), a notion that did not catch on until Copernicus. Pythagoras and his followers also developed basic mathematical notions, such as the concepts of equation and proportion.

Uranus

Uranus was the first planet to be discovered by an astronomer. Earlier sightings had been made John Flamsteed first recorded it in 1690 but it had been cataloged as a star. William Herschel spotted Uranus on March 13, 1781, and named the planet Georgium Sidus for George III, the king of England at that time. Many simply called the planet Herschel, after its discoverer. By the mid-1800s the agreed-upon name of Uranus came into common usage, which Bode had proposed as more consistent with the mythological names of the other planets. As the first known planet beyond Saturn, the discovery of Uranus caused something of an upheaval in traditional astronomy and astrology circles. In addition, the timing of Uranus's discovery coincided with the independence revolutions of America and France and the industrial revolution in England. These disruptions of intellectual and political circles gave astrologers reason to believe that Uranus represented rebelliousness, disruptive influences, breaking...

Hygeia

Hygeia, asteroid 10 (the 10th asteroid to be discovered, on April 12, 1849, by the Italian astronomer Annibale de Gasparis), is approximately 430 kilometers in diameter and has an orbital period of 5.5 years. Hygeia was the daughter of Aesculapius and the goddess of health and hygiene. According to Martha Lang-Wescott, the position of Hygeia and the aspects to it provide some indications of the native's health. This asteroid's key words are health and hygiene.

Urania

Urania, asteroid 30 (the 30th asteroid to be discovered, on July 22, 1854), was named after the Greek muse of astronomy. Its orbital period is 32 3 years, and its diameter is 94 kilometers. Urania is one of the more recent asteroids to be investigated. Preliminary material on Urania can be found in Demetra George and Douglas Bloch's Astrology for Yourself, and an ephemeris (table of celestial positions) for it can be found in the second edition of George and Bloch's Asteroid Goddesses. Unlike the planets, which are associated with a wide range of phenomena, the smaller asteroids are said to represent a single principle. George and Bloch give Urania's principle as inspired knowledge. Zipporah Dobyns speculates that the meanings of Urania are related to those of Uranus, namely, seeking of freedom, the need for variety, intellectual openness, etc. The late John Addey regarded Urania as the ruler of astrology (which Uranus is usually said to rule) he found it prominent in the charts of...

Lesson No I

The word astrology comes ultimately from two Greek words - astron meaning star and logos meaning discourse. Merriam-Webster defines it as 1. Practical astronomy. 2. The pseudo science which treats of the influences of the stars upon human affairs, and of foretelling terrestrial events by their positions and aspects. The respected science of astronomy was at one time a branch of astrology, which was broken down into four divisions Natural Astrology became Astronomy while Judicial and Horary Astrology have become specialities of certain astrologers. Genethliacal has blossomed into the more popular and easier-to-pronounce Natal Astrology. This course covers all branches but concentrates on Natal. Astronomy isn't the only science connected with astrology. Hippocrates, the founder of medical science and author of the famous physicians' oath, was an astrologer. Copernicus learned his basic science at an astrology school founded by the King of Poland. Ptolemy and Sir Isaac Newton were...

Brady Bernadette

Bernadette Brady is a faculty member of the Astrological Guild of Educators International a fellow of the Federation of Australian Astrologers (FAA) coprincipal of Astro Logos, an astrological school dedicated to the education and qualification of practicing astrologers and is currently a student at Bath Spa University in the cultural astronomy and astrology program.

Brahe Tycho

Tycho Brahe, an eminent Danish astronomer and astrologer, was born April 13, 1546, in Kundstorp, Denmark. He taught astronomy at the University of Copenhagen and established an observatory on the island of Hven under the patronage of King Frederick II. Brahe moved to Prague, Czechoslovakia, after the king's death, where he took Johannes Kepler as his assistant. An engraving of the great astronomer Tycho Brahe by Gheyn near the end of the sixteenth century. Reproduced by permission of Fortean Picture Library.

Chiron

Before considering the meaning of Chiron in the horoscope, exploring some of its astronomy can help us reflect on its meaning. Chiron was discovered in 1977, between Saturn and Uranus, and reclassified several times until 1992, when the Kuiper Disk was discovered. This is a large disk of matter surrounding the solar system that comprises probably billions of small celestial objects and has yielded several new astronomical categories, including Centaurs. Chiron is now considered to be the first of this group, and to date more than 20 others have been discovered, although only a few are named. The naming process itself tells us something about the astrological themes of Chiron and the Centaurs, as it is the first time in recorded history that astrologers and astronomers have cooperated in such a venture. The scientific and intuitive and the rational and inspirational have been brought together. Further, we can see the astronomy reflected in the mythology, in that Chiron is taken to...

Culture and Cosmos

Founded by Nicholas Campion in 1997, Culture and Cosmos is the only peer-reviewed academic journal on the history of astrology and cultural astronomy. The term cultural astronomy was adapted from the phrase astronomy-in-culture, which was then increasingly used to describe the studies of nonmodern and non-Western astronomies. In Campion's definition, it embraces the broader cultural context within which astrology exists and examines the impact of astronomical ideas on human culture, beliefs and practices. It includes the creation of calendars, astral religion and the new disciplines of discipline of 'ethnoastronomy' (which focuses on folk beliefs concerning astronomy from around the world) and archaeoastronomy (the study of astronomical alignments and symbolism in ancient buildings). The papers published vary in scope from Mayan carvings to Indian temples, and Mesopotamian astronomy to Renaissance astrology and modern cosmology. Contributors have included Robin Heath, Nick...

Dembowska

Dembowska, asteroid 349 (the 349th asteroid to be discovered, on December 9, 1892), is approximately 164 kilometers in diameter and has an orbital period of 5 years. It was named after the Italian astronomer Baron Ercole Dembowska, who established observatories at Naples and Milan. The name of this planetoid which seems to suggest an unusual mythological figure, but which does not appear in any mythological dictionaries led to its inclusion in The Asteroid Ephemeris Dudu, Dembowska, Pittsburgh, Frigga, Batya Stark and Mark Pottenger's tour de force of astrological humor.

The Greek Background

The heterogeneous group of thinkers known traditionally as the Presocratics, though some are contemporary with Socrates, did concern themselves with cosmological speculation which could be called astronomy. Their role in the development of theories about the heavens is difficult to reconstruct, as the later authorities tend to retroject recent developments. For instance, the report that the sixthcentury Thales of Miletus predicted an eclipse is likely to be apocryphal, since there was no fixed calendar, nor was the solar year's length established in Greece at this time. The Greeks did not even distinguish the planets (literally 'wanderers') from the fixed stars until the fifth century. We can be fairly sure of one major borrowing from Babylon apart from names for the constellations in the fifth century Meton and Euctemon's attempt to reform the calendar in Athens in about 432 BCE was based on Babylonian methods.20 Plato (c. 429-347 BCE) reveals the continued relevance of astronomy to...

Ibn Ezra Avraham

Rabbi Avraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra was a renowned Jewish scholar born in eleventh-century Spain. He was accomplished in many disciplines and his prolific writing encompassed biblical exegeses Hebrew grammar personal, national, and liturgical poetry philosophy mathematics geometry astronomy and astrology. In mainstream Judaism, he was known and loved mainly for his Bible commentary as well as his poetry, whereas to the Christian European world he became known through his astrological and mathematical writings. This was the golden era for the Jews in Spain, who flourished economically, scientifically, and culturally, and who were also instrumental in transmitting the Arabic sciences and philosophy to Christian Europe. These were also the times of the Crusades and the wars between the Moslems and the Christians in Spain, and the Jewish communities were caught in the middle, suffering persecutions both in North Africa and Spain. All these circumstances left their mark in Ibn Ezra's life and...

Altusi

One of the greatest mathematicians and scientists of the thirteenth century, Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi (1201-74), was one such victim. Persian by birth, Al-Tusi was also a philospher, astronomer and physician, who wrote in both Arabic and his native language. His devotion to systematic scientific inquiry led to him being dubbed 'al-Muhaqqiq', the investigator. Born in Savah, or in Tus, Khurasan, he was kidnapped at an early age by the Isma'ili governor of Quhistan, and sent to Alamut, where he remained, if not a prisoner at least an unwilling guest, until its capture by the Mongols in 1256. It may have been here that Al-Tusi first became interested in geomancy, for the Isma'ili doctrines contained much of an esoteric nature. A large number of writings (at least fifty-six) on many subjects are ascribed to him. These mainly included astrological and astronomical works concerned directly with such questions as the trajectory, size and distance from earth of specific planets, as well as their...

Chance Events

To wait and see, the other retrospection. By a combination of the known orbital motions of the two bodies, they were able to construct a table of the past conjunctions of these planets through the entire circle of the zodiac. Astronomy, chronology, and history conspired to the result, and the effects of the conjunctions of Mars and Saturn in the successive signs of the zodiac were predicable in a general manner for all time. Needless to say they were of an adverse, and most frequently of a violent, nature.

Mithraism

Neoplatonism Cosmology

As will become obvious, Mithraism was much more complicated than the various state cults of the Sun, and seems to share some cosmological features with Gnosticism and Neoplatonism. Recent scholarship has suggested that astrology and astronomy offer keys to the Mithraic mystery. a lion and a cup, are featured. These have been explained as constellations, Hydra, Canis Minor, Corvus, Scorpio, Leo major and Krater. Wheat ears have also been interpreted as Spica. Explanations for the choice of constellations vary, but the most comprehensive solution, albeit a controversial one, has been provided in a recent publication by David Ulansey, who alters the correspondences slightly.81 He argues that the constellations are those which lie on the celestial equator at a time when the spring equinox is in Taurus, that is a time between roughly 4000 and 2000 years BCE, when precession brought the spring equinox to Aries (see Chapter 4). The torchbearers he interprets as...

Occultation

An occultation (from the Latin occultus, meaning to hide) is an eclipse of a star or planet by another heavenly body, particularly by the Moon. Despite its seemingly exotic connotation, it is a commonly used term in astronomy as well as in astrology. The astrological importance, if any, of occultations has been hotly debated. Part of what is at issue in this debate is competing theories of celestial influence. If, as one school of thought asserts, astrology works via the mechanism of acausal synchronicity, then occultations should have no influence beyond what one would expect from a simple conjunction. If, however, the celestial bodies influence events on Earth through forces analogous to gravity or electromagnetism, then an occultation should have a measurable effect on the star or planet that has been occulted, especially when it is being eclipsed by a large body like the Sun. Certain experiments, such as those in which the Kolisko effect has been observed, seem to corroborate the...

Cosmic Analogies

In a former chapter I have shown that the value of Pi 3.14159 is contained in the sum of an age, a year, and a day of Brahma. I am not in a position to prove that the ancient Hindus, in instituting these periods, had any idea whatsoever of the mathematical ratio of the diameter to the circumference of a circle, but I should be quite prepared to find that all their great periods were but multiples of some that are commonly observed in astronomy. The belief is supported by the observations of various astronomers such as Herschel, Maskelyne, and others, who have shown that the diminution amounts to half a second per year of fifty seconds per century, and this is exactly one hundredth of the precession of the equinoxes.

Lesson V

Chiron taught Aesculapeius the secrets of anatomy and medicine. The training was so remarkably concise that Aesculapeius eventually became the deity of the healing arts. Chiron instructed Hercules in the delicacies of astronomy and science. He was also responsible for young Apollo's mastery of music and the graphic arts. Hercules, despite his praise-worthy attributes, had an inflammable temper. Enraged one day at being chided by Chiron for making a mistake, Hercules hurled a poison arrow into the unguarded back of the old centaur. Mortally wounded Chiron sought assistance from the great deity Jupiter. Overcome with sympathy Jupiter transformed Chiron into the star cluster that can be seen in the constellation Sagittarius which, as will become second knowledge to you, has jurisdiction over higher learning and hunting. When the old centaur speeds after knowledge, none can hold him back. He is the mighty hunter of the Zodiac who always pursues truth and happiness.

Jayne Charles A Jr

Jayne, Jr., born October 9, 1911, in Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, was an eminent astrologer, writer, teacher, and lecturer, who stressed the importance of mathematics and astronomy. He began studying astrology in the mid-1930s. After serving in the U.S. Army during World War II, he became deeply involved in astrological work. During the 1946 fall semester, he served on the astrological faculty of the American Foundation for Metaphysical Arts and Sciences in New York City. He contributed technical material, such as data on eclipses, to Nicholas DeVore's Encyclopedia of Astrology and wrote frequently for such astrological periodicals as Horoscope magazine.

Dark Matter

While you may think this is all very interesting, it is crucial to understanding how the M-flux, or in more popular terms, dark matter, came to be identified, and why its role is so important today. When astronomers attempt to tally up all the matter in the universe they come up 90 to 99 percent short of what should be there. It's interesting to wonder what astronomers are thinking when they look through their telescopes knowing that maybe they're only seeing one percent of what's out there. The M-flux, or dark matter, exists throughout the universe, but remains elusive The M-flux, as defined, may have had nothing more than a vague intent, such as maybe an egg having the intent of becoming a chicken. With the intent now further realized in the M-field, the means took shape with the power and the material to act. The star was born with an objective that contained a plan from universal M-flux to particular M-field, M-factor, sentience, now became possible. In plain terms, life emerging...

Ptolemy Claudius

Claudius Ptolemy (100-178), sometimes called the father of Western astrology, was a Greek astronomer and astrologer who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Ptolemy was a highly learned individual, with a broad grasp of geography, mathematics, astronomy, and music. His account of the motions of the planets, which placed Earth as the stable

Robert Fludd

He was also important in other fields of endeavour and became a close correspondent of the astronomer Kepler. Fludd's contribution to astronomy was more in the nature of cosmological speculations, but because of the logic of the time, Kepler felt that amongst Fludd's cosmological speculation were principles which he could possibly apply to deducing the physical nature of the universe. It was not unusual in the seventeenth century for thinkers to subscribe to the 'as above so below' theory, and use the conclusions of one science to answer questions in another.

Agrippa

Agrippa divided his famous work on occult philosophy into three volumes, followed posthumously by a fourth volume, which contains his main treatise on geomancy with other works on magic and geomancy such as the Magical Elements of Peter de Abano. The first volume treats of Natural magic, the second of Celestial magic, and the third of Ceremonial magic, following the traditional division of philosophy into Natural (being concerned in large part with those subjects nowadays grouped under the physical sciences), Mathematical (including astrology, astronomy, geometry and akin subjects) and Theological or Metaphysical philosophy (concerned with speculations on Cosmology, Cosmogony and more religious issues). The fourth volume contains the practice, especially that of geomancy.

The Tenth House

A love and command of statistics and minute details is indicated by this position of Aquarius. If the native can effectively blend his intellectual and mental interests with the world of mathematics, then a scientifically related profession is strongly indicated. This sign implies success in electronics and everything which is related directly or indirectly to the world of electricity. The native may very well study the field of astronomy professionally.

Gerard Of Sabbioneta

Gerard of Sabbioneta composed or translated one treatise on geomancy, the Geomantiae Astronomiae Libellus (probably in 1294) and a summary of Ptolemaic astronomy as explained by al-Farghani and al-Battani, thus very closely paralleling the work of Gerard of Cremona himself.

Lesson Ii

From the time of Abelard to the twelfth century, the original learning of the West was returned to it via Arabic translations, which added their own unique brand of eastern wisdom in passing. As the reawakening progressed, scholars demanded more and more knowledge, and there was a great rebirth of mathematics, astronomy, astrology and the experimental sciences. Natural Astrology or Astronomy As the Middle Ages gave way to the Renaissance, astronomy also enjoyed a rebirth of interest. In the latter part of the 13th century, mathematician Johannes Campanus is reported to have systematized the division of the horoscope into the twelve houses of the zodiac. Like Hippocrates and Paraclesus, the founders of medical theory, Campanus was a physician. He was both doctor and chaplain to Pope Urban IV. In the 15th century, Johann Muller, a professor of astronomy and author of several books on trigonometry, published a translation of another of Ptolemy's books on astronomy called Almagest. During...

Babylon And Greece

However, despite the dearth of contemporary evidence for Hellenistic astronomy and astrology, it has become increasingly clear in recent years that Babylonian data were very important in Greek constructions of models of the universe. Whereas Otto Neugebauer, the major authority on the early history of the exact sciences, tended to argue that little more than a few concepts, numerical parameters and simple procedures passed from Babylon to Greece, recent work has revealed the use of Babylonian methods and data well into the Common Era, even after Ptolemy's Almagest of the second century CE.18 Babylonian rules for the rising and setting of the Moon reappear almost unchanged in Pliny's encyclopaedia and in the secondcentury astrologer Vettius Valens.19

Ramon Lull

Lull's treatment of astrology is typical of his desire to encompass all arts and sciences within his own scheme or ars nova. As Sarton says 'It is clear that he had no real grasp of either mathematics or astronomy he treated these subjects with the habitual conceit of a philospher who believes he can dominate them without detailed and intimate knowledge.'17

Michael Scot

Geomancy, according to Lynn Thorndike 'seems to have been nearly as popular in the medieval period as the ouija board is now', and so it is no surprise to find that Michael Scot (c. 1175-c. 1235), a leading intellectual in Europe during the early thirteenth century also embraced the practice of geomancy. Scot has appeared as a shadowy and intriguing character to later generations, an alchemist, physician, astrologer and divine. His insistence on experience and experiment influenced the methods of such figures as Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon. On the other hand, Scot was also a man of his period and delighted 'in the adulterine arts such as the interpretation of dreams, auguries and lots'. He was born in Scotland and is thought to have studied at Oxford, and like Roger Bacon, taught and studied at the University of Paris. The earliest certain date in his cosmopolitan academic career is 1217 when he translated the work of al-Bitrugi, a twelfth century astronomer. He also introduced...

F m Pluto In Scorpio

People with this placement will be sensitive to their environment, emotionally intense, intrigued with the mysterious, penetrating in all they undertake and at times even ruthless. Industrialist Pierre Dupont, traitor Benedict Arnold, General Charles Cornwallis, astronomer William Herschel, artist Francisco Goya.

The Elements

Signs were also ascribed masculine and feminine qualities traditionally, the signs in alternate order, starting with Aries and ending with Aquarius, are masculine, the others feminine. Ancient texts take these divisions of the signs much further - in the writings of the Greek astronomer and astrologer Ptolemy (c100-c178), for instance, we find Aries, Taurus, Leo, and Sagittarius described as bestial Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces as fruitful and Gemini, Sagittarius, and Pisces as common.

Telescopes Mastery

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