Index Of Ancient Writers On Astrology

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ANTIOCHUS of ATHENS. Author of a prose introduction to Astrology used by Rhetorius (q.v.) and Porphyry (q.v.). Formerly placed in second century a.d. (W. Kroll,ií£, Suppl. IV, 32 ff.), he is now considered to belong to the first century b.c. Mentioned by Firmicus II, 29, 2. E. Boer, Der Kleine Pauly /, (1963) 662; F. Cumont, "Antiochus d'Athenes et Porphyre," Melanges Bidez, Bruxelles, 1933. 150 verses attributed to him are probably by Dorotheos of Sidon (Kroll,loc. cit.). Fragments, CCAG, I, 108, A. Olivieri.

ANUBION. First century a.d. writer of astrological handbook in elegiacs, quoted by Antiochus (q.v.), Hephaestion (q.v.), and Rhetorios (q.v.). Mentioned by Firmicus as Hanubium (III, 1, 1) together with Aesculapius and Mercury. Possibly Firmicus confused him with the Egyptian god Anubis, since he puts him in divine company (W. Kroll,RE, Suppl. I, 87, s.v. "Anubion"; Bidez-Cumont,L« Mages Hellenish, II, 310).

ARATUS of SOLI. 315-240/39 b.c. Poet, worked at the court of Antigonus Canatas and Antiochus of Syria. Author of Phaenomena, a poem on the heavenly bodies, based on researches of Eudoxos of Cnidos. Commented on by Hipparchas and many others, translated into Latin by Cicero and Germanicus. E. Maass, Phaenomena, Berlin, 1898; rept. 1958.

ANONYMOUS of 379. Egyptian living at Rome (using klima of Rome), who dates himself by the consuls of that year. Influenced by Ptolemy and Vettius Valens; writes on the meaning of the bright stars. CCAG, I, 195 ff., F. Cumont.

CENSORINUS. Roman grammarian of the third century a.d. Author of De die natali, containing much calendar lore, which he probably derived from Varro and Suetonius. Ed. E. Hultsch, Leipzig, 1868.

CRITODEMOS. One of the earliest Greek writers on astrology, perhaps of the third century b.c. Mentioned by Pliny (N.H., VII, 193) as a disciple of Berossos; by Vettius Valens (III, 12) as the author of a work called Horasis; by Firmicus {Math. IV, proe.), after Nechepso-Petosiris, Abram and Orpheus, all more or less legendary.

DOROTHEOS OF SIDON. Lived before Balbillus (Nero's astrologer), 65 a.d. Writer of astrological lore in verse. Mentioned by Firmicus, Math., II, 29. Much quoted by Arab astrologers, according to V. Stegmann, Quellen und Studien zur GeschichteundKulturdesAltertumsunddesMitelalters, Reihe B, Heft I. V. Stegmann, Die Fragmente des Dorotheos von Sidon, Würzburg, 1937; also by A. Koechly, Leipzig, 1858.

FRONTO. Mentioned by Firmicus {Math. II, prae.), together with Hipparchus, Ptolemy and Navigius (Nigidius?) as sources of the antiscia theory. Called unknown by all commentators on Firmicus, but the name might possibly be a corruption of Fonteius Capito, a member of the group of Nigidius and Varro, who followed Antony to Egypt and was known to have written on astrology. Stefan Weinstock, "C. Fonteius Capito and the Libri Tagetici," Papers of the Br. Sch. at Rome, XVII, N.S., V 1950, 44-49.

GEMINOS of RHODES. ca. 50 b.c. Author of "the oldest existing work on astronomy from the ancient world" (Gundel, Astrolegumena). Gives the basic concepts of mathematical astrology as well. Of his many writings, one on astronomy remains. Chapter II is on astrology. Ed. C. Manitius, Leipzig, 1898.

HEPHAESTION of THEBES. Fourth century a.d. writer from Egyptian Thebes who gives many details about Egypt, including the Egyptian names of the decans. Includes a horoscope dated 381 a.d. It has been suggested that he was a Christian, but his discussion of gods, temples and decans indicates not. Ed. A. Engelbrecht, Wien, 1887; also, CCAG, VIII, I, 146 ff„ F. Cumont.

HIPPARCHUS. ca. 190 to after 126 b.c. One of the greatest of the Greek astronomers. Attributed to him is the discovery of the procession of the equinoxes. In his commentary on Aratus (q.v.), he corrected many observations of Eudoxos. Also is reputed to have written on astrology which, as Neugebauer points out (Exact Sciences, p. 168), was perfectly reputable for his day. Mentioned by Firmicus as one of the discoverers of the antiscia (Math. II, prae.). D.R. Dicks, Geographical Fragments of Hipparchus, London, 1966; O. Neugebauer, "Notes on Hipparchus," in Studies in Honor of Hetty Goldman, Philadelphia, 1956.

MANETHO. Author of a work called Apotelesmata from the time of Hadrian. It is not known whether this was his real name or whether he took the name of the Egyptian priest of Hellenistic times who wrote the famous history of Egypt in Greek. His extant writings consist of six books in verse showing the influence of Dorotheos of Sidon. Ed. A. Koechly,Manethonis Apotelesmaticorum quiferuntur libri VI, Leipzig, 1858.

MANILIUS, MARCUS. Otherwise unknown author, of the time of Augustusor Tiberius, of a poem in Five books called the Astronomica. This contains star lore, but omits any discussion of the planets, either because he did not Finish the poem, or because he left them out on purpose, so as not to be accused of writing an astrological manual. Ed. A. E. Housman, Cambridge, 1937.

NAVIGIUS. Mentioned by Firmicus, Math., II prae, as one of the sources of his antiscia theory. Generally assumed to mean Nigidius Figulus, Pythagorean philosopher, astrologer, contemporary of Cicero. Known to have written on the sphaera barbarica (stars outside the zodiac), and perhaps on thesphaera graecanica (stars in the zodiac). Ed. A. Swoboda, P. Nigidii Figuli Operum reliquiae (Vienna, 1889; reprinted Amsterdam, 1964); Adriana della Casa, Nigidio Figulo, Roma, 1962.

NECHEPSO-PETOSIRIS. Handbook of^astrologjj, compiled perhaps abdut 150 b.c. in Alexandria, named after an Egyptian pharaoh of the seventh century and his high priest. Mentioned frequently by Firmicus and others, it was undoubtedly an important source of the doctrine. "Nechepsonis et Petosiridis fragmenta," ed. Ernst Riess, Philologus, Suppl. 6, 1891-93.

PAUL OF ALEXANDRIA. End of fourth century. Wrote in Alexandria a handbook, which is a very complete account of the astrological methods of his time. Heliodorus, an Athenian disciple of Proclus (475-509), wrote a commentary on it. Paul had an important influence on Indian astrology. Ed. A. E. Boer, Leipzig, 1958.

PORPHYRY. Neo-Platonic philosopher who wrote, among his other many works, a very informative commentary on Ptolemy. CCAG, V, 4, S. T. Weinstock.

PTOLEMAEUS, CLAUDIUS, fl. 127-148 a.d. The great astronomer who produced the Syntaxis (Almagest)', also wrote a work on astrology known as the Tetrabiblos to provide a scientific basis for the art. Mentioned by Firmicus (Math., II, prae.). Eds. F. Boll and A. E. Boer, Claudii Ptolemaei opera III, 1 Apotelesmata, Leipzig, 1940; see also the Loeb edition by F. E. Robbins, 1940.

RHETORIUS. A practicing astrologer who worked in Constantinople under Anastasios I (491-518). Ninety chapters survive of his lengthy compilation entitled The Thesauros. CCAG, I, 140-164, F. Boll.

SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. Physician and skeptical philosopher who included much interesting material in his book against astrology: Adversus Mathematicos V. Ed. J. B. Bury (Loeb Classical Library, 1949, 1961).

TEUKROS of BABYLON. Probably first century a.d. Wrote on sphaera barbarica. Great influence on Arab astrology. Modern scholars who favor Egyptian origins for astrology would like to make this Babylon a small town on the Nile. Ed. F. Boll, Sphaera, Hildesheim, 1967. CCAG, VII, 194 ff.

VETTIUS VALENS. Practicing astrologer, probably of the second century a.d. One of the very few whose work, a lengthy casebook, has almost entirely survived. Ed. W. Kroll, Berlin, 1908.

Ancient Sources

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Pseudo-Plutarch. De fato.

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Rhetorius. CCAG VIII, 5. Ed. F. Cumont. Brussels, 1935.

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