Accidental Ascendant. A device employed by Evangeline Adams whereby to draw Horary interpretations from a natal Figure. In applying this method one determines the Ascendant for the moment the question is propounded, and rotates the Figure until this degree occupies the East point.

Accidental Dignity. See 'Dignities'

Acronycal. Said of the rising after sunset, or setting before sunrise, of a planet that is in opposition to the Sun, hence in a favorable position for astronomical observation.

Acronycal place. The degree the planet will occupy when it is in opposition to the Sun.

Active Influence. That which results from an aspect between two or more astrological factors or sensitive points, thereby producing the action that can materialize in an event.

Adept. One who has attained to proficiency in any art or science. It may be said of a skilled astrologer who, through spiritual development, has attained to superior powers and transcendental knowledge concerning the origins and destiny of mankind. Formerly said of an alchemist who had attained the 'great secret' - presumably that concerning the 'transmutation of metals'. Its modern application is to the transmutation of unfavorable cosmic stimuli and the baser emotions into nobler impulses - thereby achieving the triumph of mind over matter, and of the spiritual over the carnal.

Adjusted Calculation Date. A term used in reference to a directed or progressed horoscope, as indicating the date on which the planet culminates. Also termed Limiting Date. See 'Directions'.

Advantage, Line of. A term sometimes used with reference to the position of the Moon's

Ascending Node in a Geocentric Figure. The line of advantage runs between the cusps of the third decanates of the Third and Ninth Houses. A position of the Node East of this line is judged to be favorable.

Related to it are the Arcs of Increased and Dwarfed Stature. From the middle of the First House, clockwise to the middle of the Eighth House, is the arc of Increased Stature, with its peak at cusp of the Twelfth House; and from the middle of the Seventh House, clockwise to the middle of the Second House, is the Arc of Dwarfed Stature, with its peak at the cusp of the Sixth House. See Nodes, Moon's.

Affinity. A binding by mutual attraction. The Sun is said to have an affinity with all the planets; Mars with Venus, in a magnetic or physical sense; Venus with Jupiter, in a philanthropic sense as one who loves his fellowman; Venus with Mercury, in an artistic sense.

Afflicted: (Afflicted by / in affliction with): Unfavorably aspected. Loosely applied to: (a) any inharmonious aspect to a planet, or (b) to any aspect, particularly the conjunction, parallel, square or opposition, to a malefic planet. Also by some authorities applied to a mundane or zodiacal parallel with, or when, besieged by both Infortunes (q.v.). Some authorities consider that the sensitive degree on any House cusp can be afflicted, though any such consideration must be confined to instances where the birth-moment is known to a certainty.

Ages, Astrological. As anciently considered, a period of roughly 2150 years during which the point of the Spring Equinox recedes through one sign of the Zodiac of Constellations. Since the constellations have no precise boundaries, the points of beginning and ending are mere approximations.

However, it is an absurdity to date the beginning of the precessional cycle, of presumably 25,800 years, from the particular time in history when it was decided no longer to treat the Equinox as a moving point, but instead to freeze it at 0° Aries. It is probably that midway between the Equinoctial points are the Earth's Nodes, where the plane of its orbit intersects that of the Sun, at an inclination of approx. 50°; but since the Equinoctial Point is now considered as a fixed point and the motion takes place only within its frame of reference, it appears that a study of the circle which the celestial pole describes around the pole of the Ecliptic will be required in order to determine when it passes an East point, to mark the time of beginning of the first of twelve astrological ages of 2150 years each, into which the precessional cycle is subdivided. On this manner of reckoning the Earth might now be in the Capricorn Age, as well as any other. At least there is no justification for us to consider mankind as now in the Aquarian age, even though a recent astronomical treatise speaks of the Signs of the Zodiac as 'now precessed some 25° west of the constellations of the same name'. Historical records show the Equinox as having once began in Taurus, at which time Taurus was considered to be the first Sign of the Zodiac. See 'Precession'.

Air Signs. The mental or intellectual signs: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius. Considered collectively, sometimes termed the Air asterism.

Albedo. Literally, whiteness. A measure of the reflecting power of a planet, in ration to its absorptive capacity; expressed in a figure which represents the amount of light reflected from an unpolished surface in proportion to the total amount of light falling upon it.

The albedo of the Moon and Mercury is 7; Venus 59; Earth 44; and Mars 15. Thus, the changeable character manifested by Moon and Mercury is seen to be connected in some way with their low reflective capacity.

An entirely different set of Lunar characteristics comes of the fact that as the Moon approaches an opposition to the Sun its surface temperature rises some 70-odd degrees above boiling point, and in consequence it emits a wide band of infra-red frequencies that are several times more powerful than any of the rays it reflects from the Sun. During the first few minutes of a Lunar eclipse, the surface temperature falls to a sub-zero level and the infra-red emanation ceases.

The dimly-lit surface of the Moon at the Lunation is due to light reflected back from the Earth, which with its high albedo would appear to the Moon-dweller as four times larger and many times brighter than the Moon as seen from Earth.

There are some indications that Jupiter emits a ray of its own in addition to its reflected ray, but astrophysicists are not as yet in accord on that point.

Almanac. A book or table containing a calendar of days, weeks and months, to which are added astronomical or other data. Its use dates back at least to the Alexandrian Greeks. The Roman almanac was the fasti - days on which business could be transacted.

The earliest of which we have concise record is that of Solomon Jarchus, 1150 A.D.. Purbach published one from 1450-6. His pupil Regiomontanus issues the first printed almanac in 1475. The most outstanding almanac maker of the Middle Ages was Nostradamus.

All English almanacs were prophetic until the year 1828; and until 1834 the stamp duty was 1s.3d. per copy. The first almanac in the U.S. was issued in 1639 by William Pierce. It was exceeded in popularity by Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-57) issued by Benjamin Franklin. Watkins Almanac, issued since 1868, has an annual circulation of upward of two million copies. The chief Astrological Almanacs of the present epoch are 'Raphael's', first published in 1820, and 'Zadkiel's', first published in 1830. All governments now issue an Ephemeris and a Nautical almanac. See 'Ephemeris'.

Almuten. The planet of chief influence in a Nativity by virtue of essential and accidental dignities. Its strength is estimated from: its intrinsic character; its Sign position where posited, its own Sign, or the Sign in which it is in exaltation; its harmonious aspects from favoring planets; and its elevated position in a geoarc Figure. A term of Arabian origin, seldom employed by present day astrologers.

Altitude. Elevation above the horizon, measured by the arc of a vertical circle. A planet is at meridian altitude when it is at the Midheaven, the cusp of the Tenth House.

Ambient. That which moves. A term loosely applied to the heavens. Milton speaks of the ambient air; Pope of ambient clouds.

Ptolemy used it to describe the tenth sphere that by its compelling force moved all other spheres with it from the East across the heavens. Since Copernicus exploded this concept, the modern astrologer is free to apply this excellent term to the Earth's surrounding magnetic field as varyingly charged by virtue of the cycles of the planets, the Sunspot cycle, and other cosmic phenomena.

Anahibazon. Arabic term for Caput Draconis (q.v.).

Anareta, n., anaretic, a. (Gr., destroyer). The planet which destroys form; that which kills, if such a term may be applied to a planet that unfavorably aspects the hyleg (q.v.).

Anaretic Point. Anaretic Place. The degree occupied by the Anareta.

Androgyne, n., androgynous, a.: Hermaphroditic; having characteristics of both sexes. Said of the planet Mercury, which is both dry and moist.

Angels. The angels which were associated with the different planets. v. Planetary angels.

Angle. (L., a corner). Any one of the four cardinal points in a Figure, or map, of the heavens; variously referring to the Zenith, or South Vertical; the Nadir, or North Vertical; and the East and West horizons: the cusps of the Tenth, Fourth, First and Seventh Houses, or the Medium Coeli, Immum Coeli, Oriens (Ascendant) and Occidens (Descendant) of a Solar or, indeed, of any Celestial Figure. Usually identified as the Southern, Northern, Eatern and Western angles. They are the most powerful and important arcs in Astrology. Planets therein become immensely potent for good or ill, according to the nature of the planets and their aspects. The term may refer to the shape and position of the House as placed on the square maps employed by the ancient astrologers. v. Map of the Heavens.

Many depose that the Ascendant is the most powerful angle in any Figure, though Ptolemy gives preference to the Midheaven, or Zenith, since the celestial bodies are uniformly more potent in their effects at their meridian altitude than when rising.

Angstrom. A ten-billionth of a metre. Employed as a unit for measuring the wave lengths of light. Ten angstrom equal one millimicron. v. Wave Length.

Angular: said of a planet in an angle (q.v.) or in an angular House. The angular Houses bear a correspondence to the Cardinal Signs, and planets therein posited are materially strengthened, though whether beneficially or adversely depends upon the nature of the planet itself as also upon the nature of the aspects it receives from other planets in the Scheme.

Angular Velocity. The angle through which a planet sweeps in a unit of time. Technically, the daily motion of a planet, expressed in degrees and minutes of arc, is its Angular Velocity.

Anomaly. The angular distance of a planet from its perihelion or aphelion.

Anipathies. The unaccountable aversions and antagonisms people feel toward each other when positions in their Nativities are in conflict. Among the causes of such conflict are the luminaries in dissociate Signs, or in inharmonious aspect to one another; the Ascendants in opposition Signs; the Infortunes conjunct or in inharmonious aspect to the luminaries, or to each other, or in opposition from angular Houses.

Sometimes loosely applied to planets seen in an inharmonious relationship through an adverse aspect, whereat they are considered to bear an anipathy to one another.

Antipathy. Disharmony of two bodies, usually planets, which rule or are exalted in opposite Signs. For example, Saturn ruling Capricorn has an antipathy for the Moon, ruling Cancer.

Antiscion. As modernly used in the so-called Uranian Astrology, it is the reflex position of a planet's birth position, in that degree on the opposite side of the Cancer-Capricorn axis, of which either 0° Cancer or 0° Capricorn is the midpoint. For example, the antiscion of a planet at 14° Capricorn is at 16° Sagittarius, which point becomes effective when occupied by another planet, or one in transit or by direction. As first used by Ptolemy the term is applied to two planets which have the same declination on the same side of the equator. One in the same declination on the opposite side was termed a contra antiscion. v. Parallel.

Antisedentia. An older term descriptive of retrograde motion.

Aphelion. v. Orbit.

Apheta. Prorogator. The planet or place that exercises an influence over the life and death of the native. v. Hyleg.

Aphorism. A short, pithy statement of a truth, presumably based on experience; the dictum of a wise man. Applied in Astrology to consciderations involved in the summing-up or synthesis of the various testimonies contained in the Figure. In interpreting a figure, or chart, consider the Signs as static forces; the planets as driving forces. The planets in the Signs show capacities that make for character, but the aspects, like verbs, denote action.

Neptune gives the answer to 'Who is he?'; Uranus to 'Why is he and what is his purpose?'; and the rest of the planets answer the question 'How will he fare?'

Apogee. v. Orbit.

Apparent Motion. In describing motions it is traditional to speak of them in terms of what they appear to be rather than what they are. The west wind personifies the wind that comes out of the west but which actually blows in an easterly direction. Because of the axial rotation of the Earth, the planets appear to rise over the Ascendant and travel across the meridian to the west, while they actually travel in the opposite direction. The Signs likewise appear to travel in a westerly direction while actually they do not travel at all. When we say the Sun is in Taurus, we are not actually speaking of the Sun's travel or of its position, but of the Earth's position and travel as measured by the Sun.

Application. n. Applying to; to apply. Said of a body in motion toward a point whence it will aspect another body. (v. Aspect.).

Applying, Retrograde. When the applying body is in retrograde motion. (v. Motion.)

Some authorities have used the term 'approach' as synonymous with 'apply'. The faster-moving body is said to be applying to an aspect of the slower-moving one. Precision in this regard might indcate, for example, that Saturn in direct motion could be applying to an aspect of Uranus, Neptune or Pluto only. Aspects are more powerful when forming than when separating. If either planet be retrograde, the influence is said to be injurious, or the promised result so subject to delay that it is of little value when it materializes.

Appulse. The near approach of one orbital body to another - a conjunction; the culmination at or crossing of the meridian. Applied particularly to the appulse of the Moon near to the Earth's shadow. v. Penumbral Eclipse.

Apsis, n. (pl., apsides). The points of greatest and least distance of a heavenly body from its centre of attraction. v. Orbit.

Aquarius. The eleventh sign of the zodiac. v. Signs.

Arabian Points, or Parts. Of the so-called Arabian Points, Fortuna, or the Part of Fortune, is the best known to modern astrologers, although its full significance is not generally realized. These Points tend to show that the Arabians understood the value of the Solar Houses -- those based upon the Sun's degree as the Ascendant, thence erecting twelve Houses consisting of successive thirty degree arcs. If any Figure be revolved to the point where the Sun's degree is on the Ascendant the Moon's position will coincide with the geocentric House position of Fortune; Mercury to the Point of Commerce; Venus to the Point of Love; and so on. Instead of revolving the Figure the Arabians gave rules whereby these planetary House-positions could be inserted in a Figure based on a birth-moment. Thus the Scheme showed each planet in two House-positions: one based on its relation to a rising degree, the other on its relation to the Sun itself. Naturally the rules for computing these locations infer a knowledge of the correct birth-moment. However, it is incorrect to assume that these points cannot be utilized when the birth-moment is unknown. On the contrary, a Figure erected with Aries 0° as an Ascendant can be more comprehensively interpreted by the use of most of the Arabian Points than in perhaps any other way. The so-called Solar Equilibrium system is entirely based upon the Arabian concepts. To utilize these Points without a known ascendant degree cast a Figure with Aries 0° as an Ascendant and proceed as follows:

Revolve the Figure until the Sun's degree is on the Ascendant, then divide it into Houses consisting of successive 30° arcs from that degree.

The Moon's position is the Part of Fortune and shows the lunar influence in shaping adult individuality and destiny, just as the Moon's relation to the rising degree shows the lunar influence upon the personality and the physical development of the early years.

Mercury's position is the Caduceus, or Point of Commerce.

Venus' position is the Heart, or Point of Love.

Mars' position is the Sword, or Point of Passion.

Jupiter's position is the Pomegranate, or Point of Increase.

Saturn's position is the Hour Glass, or Point of Fatality. This Point is also known as the Point of Love of Brethren, indicating those for whom one feels a sense of responsibility.

Uranus's position is the Lightning Flash, or Point of Catastrophe.

Neptune's position is the Trident, or Point of Treachery.

Pluto's position is the Gavel, or Point of Organization. (The last three are modern applications to utilize the three planets of modern discovery.)

Now revolve the Figure until the Moon's degree is on the Ascendant and continue.

The Sun's position is the Point of Spirit. Mercury's position is the Point of Faith. Venus' position is the Point of Female Children. Jupiter's position is the Point of Male Children.

It is worthy of note that Mars and Saturn bore no relation to matters which come under the influence of the Moon.

With the Sun on the Ascendant, locate a point as far distant in a converse direction, as the Moon is distant in the order of the Signs. This is the Point of Spirit. Advance the Point of Spirit to the Ascendant and the Moon position becomes the Point of Merchandise.

Placing the Moon's dispositor -- the Ruler of the Sign in which the Moon is posited -- at the Ascendant, the Moon becomes the Point of Bondage.

Insert the position of the Lunation or Full Moon next preceding the day of birth, and place that on the Ascendant, and the Moon position locates the Point of Life.

Taking the Mercury position as an Ascendant, the Moon position is the Point of Servants. Mars' position is the Point of Understanding.

Taking the Venus position as an Ascendant, the Moon position is the Point of the Mother. Saturn's position is the Point of Fortune in Husbandry.

Taking the Mars position as the Ascendant, the Venus position is the Point of Plays. Jupiter's position is the Point of Discord.

Taking the Saturn position as an Ascendant, the Sun position is the Point of the Father.

Moon position is the Point of Magistery and Possessions or the Point of Inheritance.

Mars' position is the Point of Sickness.

Jupiter's position is the Point of Brothers and Sisters.

Cancer 15° is the Point of Journeys by Water.

(Instead of rotating the chart, it is equally practicable to locate the Point of the Father, for example, by computing the arc from Saturn to the Sun, and if this is a 40° separation, say "The Sun is in a Second House position to Saturn, hence the Point of the Father is in the Second House.")

If you have an hour of birth from which to compute a Rising degree, mark the cusps on the circumference of the Figure and consider these additional Points:

With the Lord of the Second House as an Ascendant, consider the altered House-position of the cusps of the Second House. This is the Point of Goods.

With the Lord of the Ninth House as an Ascendant, consider the altered House-position of the cusp of the Ninth House. This is the Point of Travel by Land.

With the Lord of the Twelfth House as an Ascendant, consider the altered House-position of the cusp of the Twelfth House. This is the Point of Private Enemies.

With the Moon as an Ascendant, the cusp of the Eighth House becomes the Point of Death: the point where experience must crystallize into either regeneration or disintegration.

If the birth was at night, with the Sun below the Horizon, in Houses I to VII, put Jupiter on the Ascendant, and consider the House-position of Saturn as the Point of Brethren.

With the Venus-degree on the Ascendant, the cusp of the Seventh House is the Point of Marriage. Marc Jones suggests that with the cusp of the Seventh as an Ascendant, the Venusposition might be taken as the Point of Divorce.

With Saturn on the Horizon, the position of the Lord of the Eighth House is the Point of the "Most Perilous Year."

Finally, for the Point of Honorable and Illustrious Acquaintances, apply the Sun-Fortuna arc of the Geocentric Figure to a Solar Figure as follows:

If a night birth, usc the Sun as an Ascendant and consider the House-position of Fortuna. If a day birth, use Fortuna as Ascendant, and consider the House-position of the Sun.

The Point of the Father appears to be the Point of Sudden Advancement, except that if Saturn be combust Jupiter is to be taken as the Ascendant in considering the House-position of the Sun. The passing of the progressed Moon over the sensitive point in the radical Figure indicated by the Part of Fortune is supposed to stimulate all matters having to do with worldly possessions. It is generally supposed that it is also affected by aspects to this point -according to the nature of the aspect, and of the aspecting body. This point is not commonly progressed, but Sepharial suggests that research might possibly show that the continuous adjustment of the point in its relationship to the Ascendant to accord with the changing relationship of the progressed Lights, would be productive of tangible results.

All these points are susceptible to stimulation or accent by Lunations, Full Moons, and Eclipses on these degrees, and by transit or progression of the planets over the arcs in which they are located. In short they represent just that many added points of sensitivity and receptivity.

For consideration in that connection, the traditional formulae for the locating of these points in the Geocentric, or birth-hour, Figure are as follows:

Fortuna: Asc plus Moon minus Sun.

Commerce: Asc plus Mercury minus Sun.

Love: Asc plus Venus minus Sun.

Passion: Asc plus Mars minus Sun.

Increase: Asc plus Jupiter minus Sun.

Fatality: Asc plus Saturn minus Sun. Catastrophe: Asc plus Uranus minus Sun. Treachery: Asc plus Neptune minus Sun. Organization: Asc plus Pluto minus Sun. Spirit: Asc plus Sun minus Moon. Faith: Asc plus Mercury minus Moon. Female Children: Asc plus Venus minus Moon. Male Children: Asc plus Jupiter minus Moon.

Merchandise: Asc plus Fortuna minus Spirit. (Also Sorrow and Imprisonment)

Bondage: Asc plus Moon minus dispositor of Moon.

Life: Asc plus Moon minus Lunation or Full Moon next before birth.

Servants: Asc plus Moon minus Mercury.

Understanding: Asc plus Mars minus Mercury.

Mother: Asc plus Moon minus Venus. (Also Friends.)

Fortune in Husbandry: Asc plus Saturn minus Venus.

Play: Asc plus Venus minus Mars.

Discord: Asc plus Jupiter minus Mars.

Father: Asc plus Sun minus Saturn.

Inheritance: Asc plus Moon minus Saturn. (Also Magistery and Possessions.)

Sickness: Asc plus Mars minus Saturn.

Brothers and Sisters: Asc plus Jupiter minus Saturn.

Journeys by Water: Asc plus Cancer 150 minus Saturn.

Goods: Asc plus cusp of Second House minus Lord of Second.

Travel by Land: Asc plus cusp of Ninth House minus Lord of Ninth.

Private Enemies: Asc plus cusp of Twelfth House minus Lord of Twelfth.

Death: Asc plus cusp of Eighth House minus Moon.

Brethren: In a day-birth: Asc plus Jupiter minus Saturn. In a night-birth: Asc plus Saturn minus Jupiter.

Marriage: Asc plus cusp of Seventh House minus Venus.

Divorce: Asc plus Venus minus cusp of Seventh.

Most Perilous Year: Asc plus Lord of Eighth minus Saturn.

Honorable and Illustrious Acquaintances: In a day-birth: Asc plus Sun minus Fortuna. In a night-birth: Asc plus Fortuna minus Sun.

Sudden Advancement: Asc plus Sun minus Saturn. Or if Saturn be combust, use Jupiter.

There are other points or parts, both of ancient and modern origin, many of them seemingly based on the idea that should you have a good horse there need be no fear of riding him to death. For example, there is the Point of Honor: In a day-birth: Asc plus Aries 19° minus Sun. In a night-birth: Asc minus Taurus 3° minus Moon. To make clear the calculations incidental to the application of these formulae the following illustration is given:

Presume an Ascendant-degree of 15° Pisces, a Sun-degree of 28° Taurus, and a Moon-degree of 23° Gemini. Reduce these to signs and degrees as follows: The Ascendant degree is eleven Signs plus 15°; the Sun is is plus 28°; the Moon is 2s plus 23°. Then

To Ascendant

Add Moon's position

And subtract Sun's position

Subtract the circle Fortune's degree is


To verify, note that the Moon is 25° distant from the Sun, and that Fortuna at 10° Aries is also distant from the Ascendant at 15° Pisces, by 25°. Similarly, by substituting any planet's position for that of the Moon.

Without any of this calculation it is possible at a glance to note that this Moon-position would fall in the First Solar House; therefore Fortuna will tenant the First House of the Geocentric or Birth Figure. The directing of the Ascendant to Fortuna will coincide with the directing of the Sun to the Moon's radical position. Major transits to the Moon will be operative in one sense through the Sign and House of the Moon, and in another sense through the House-position of Fortuna - which is only another way of saying the Moon's Solar-House position.

These points are employed as longitudinal degrees along the Ecliptic; not as bodies having latitude and declination. Their chief value is as indicative of the Solar-House positions through which planetary influences will operate psychologically in a mature and developed individuality -- one which has arrived at a realization and acceptance of the destiny imposed by virtue of the radical Sun-position, rather than that of a Rising Sign which largely determines the physical development in early life.

To arrive at a thorough interpretation of directions to and transits over the degree held by an Arabian Point these should be synthesized with those over the planet from which the Point is derived. According to Sepharial "Ptolemy borrowed the symbol of Fortuna from the Arabs but applied to it his own reasoning, while Placidus, in an attempt to deal with it mathematically, improved it out of existence."

Arc. A portion or segment of a curved line, such as a circle, or ellipse. Hence the orbital distance separating two bodies, or between two points.

Arc of Vision. The least distance from the Sun at which a planet is visible when the Sun is below the horizon. Diurnal Arc. The arc through which the Sun passes from sunrise to sunset. At the Equinox this arc is 180°, or 12 hours of right ascension. With increased latitude (distance away from the Equator) and nearness to the Solstices it becomes larger or smaller. Nocturnal Arc. That portion of 360°, or 24 hours, which remains after subtracting the Diurnal Arc. Semi Arc. Diurnal and Nocturnal, Half of either the Nocturnal or Diurnal Arc, measured from the Midheaven or Imum Coeli to the horizon. Arc of Direction. The distance between a significator and the point where it forms an aspect with a promittor, measured in degrees and minutes of the Equator; distance from the place of a planet to the body of same, or to a point where an aspect will be formed thereto. It may be measured either in Sidereal Time according to Tables of Ascension, or in Right Ascension as computed by spherical trigonometry. In primary directions this Arc is translated into time in the proportion of one degree of arc to a year of time, or five minutes of arc to one month of time. (v. Directions.)

Ares. The Greek god of War and Pestilence: Son of Zeus and Hera, consort of Aphrodite. The Romans associated him with Mars, the enemy of tyrants and defender of the just.

Aries. The first sign of the zodiac. v. Signs.

Armillary Sphere. A skeleton sphere suggested by concentric rings which represent the relative positions of the celestial circles of the equator and the ecliptic revolving within a horizon and meridian divided into degrees of longitude and latitude. It was invented by Eratosthenes (q.v.), who by this means computed the size of the Earth, and inclination of the ecliptic to the equator; also the latitude of the city of Alexandria. The armillary sphere is frequently used as a decoration, such as the beautiful specimen cast in bronze and supported on the shoulders of Atlas, which adorns the entrance to Rockerfeller Plaza in New York.

Ascendant. The degree of the Zodiac which appeared on the eastern horizon at the moment for which a Figure is to be cast. It is often loosely applied to the whole of the Rising Sign and to the entire First House as well as specifically to the exact degree on the horizon. With reference to a Birth Figure it signifies properly the east point of the same, placed at the left thereof (v. Map of the Heavens); hence the Sign and the degree thereof are distinguished as the Rising Sign (q.v.) and the Rising Degree. A planet between the lower meridian and the eastern horizon is ascending by virtue of the Earth's rotation, but it does not arrive at the Ascendant until it reaches the last degree of the nocturnal semi-arc.

Old authority speaks of the Ascendant as the Horoscope, and of all planets in the eastern segment of the Figure as Ascendant planets since all are actually rising, but in course of time this term has become obsolete. Only those planets that are within orbs of a conjunction with the Rising Degree, or that are in the First House, are said to be in the Ascendant. Some authorities deem that a planet in the last 12 degrees of the Twelfth House should be interpreted as a First House planet.

Ascending. A term loosely applied to any planet on the eastward side of the line between the cusps of the Fourth and Tenth Houses, which by the diurnal motion of the Earth is rising in the heavens. More precisely it applies to a planet on, or near, the eastern horizon, or in the First House. A planet oriental and matutine to the Sun is said to ascend to the Sun. One that is occidental and vespertine to the Moon is said to ascend to the Moon. Ptolemy describes the luminaries, when so placed, as guarded.

A. Latitude. The increasing latitude of a planet moving toward the north pole of the Ecliptic. A. Signs. v. Signs.

Ascension. The vertical rising of a planet above the Ecliptic, equator or horizon. Right Ascension, the circle of declination reckoned toward the east from 0° Aries, measured in the plane of the Equator. Oblique Ascension, measured on the Prime Vertical. The Midheaven is directed by Right Ascension; the Ascendant by Oblique Ascension.

Ascension, Signs of Long. Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius. (v. Signs.) Ascension, Signs of Short. Capricorn to Gemini inclusive.

Ascensional Difference. The difference between the Right Ascension of any body and its Oblique Ascension: used chiefly as expressing the difference in time between the rising or setting of a celestial body, and six o'clock; or, six hours from the meridianal passage. To find this, add the log. tangent of the declination of the planet, to the log. tangent of the latitude of the place. The sum will be the log. sine of the Ascensional Difference. This added to the planet's Right Ascension, when in South declination (or subtracted, when in North declination), gives the Oblique Ascension of the planet. The reverse process yields the Oblique Descension.

Aspect. Anciently termed Familiarities or Configurations (q.v.). Certain angular relationships between the rays which reach the Earth from two celestial bodies, or between one ray and a given point: such as -- the horizon; the degree that was on the horizon at a given moment, or that represents the position of a planet at a given moment; the point on which an Eclipse or other celestial phenomenon occurred; the places of the Moon's Nodes; or the cusps of the Houses, particularly the First and Tenth.

Many factors enter into the delineation of the effect of an aspect: such as -- the nature of the aspect; the character of the planets involved, their latitude, character and rate of motion; their strength by virtue of their sign position; the measure of harmony that exists between the signs in which are posited, and between the signs they rule; and sundry other considerations. Various terms are employed to describe these factors.

Generally speaking, the term Aspect is applicable to any blending of rays that results in their interactivity. The body which has the faster mean motion is said to aspect the slower. As speed in orbit is relative to the size of the orbit, the inner planet aspects the one farthest removed from the Sun. Thus Venus aspects Saturn, not vice versa. There are exceptions, but only when other factors are involved. Transiting Saturn cannot pass over Venus, but Saturn can pass over the degree which Venus occupied on some former occasion, at which time its influence was sufficiently augmented to create a sensitive degree -- a Venus sensitivity. Thus when Saturn transits this degree, you receive a Saturn impulse through a Venus expectancy. This illustrates the two principal types of aspects: (a) mutual aspects -- those which occurred between two moving bodies on some specified date; and (b) directional, progressed or transitory aspects -- between a moving body, and a fixed point, usually the degree a planet occupied on a specified day of birth, when it became a sensitive point in a life pattern of daily expectancy and receptivity. The planet which "burned" its mark into your pattern, has moved away -- but the expectancy and receptivity lingers on.

Forming, is said of the conditions of motion which are bringing two bodies within each other's sphere of influence, whereby an exact aspect will result. After the aspect has become exact, the receding motion is termed Separating. Also, the faster planet may be spoken of as Applying to or Separating from an aspect or a contact with the other. When sufficiently within each other's Orbs of influence to be deemed operative - within half the sum of their two orbs - it is a wide or platic aspect, which culminates in an exact or partile aspect. An aspect computed forward in the order of signs, or counter-clockwise on the map, is a sinister or left-hand aspect; in the reverse direction, a dexter or right-hand aspect. There is lack of agreement as to which are the stronger, but ancient texts favor the dexter aspects.

ZODIACAL ASPECTS, those most widely considered, are measured in degrees along the Ecliptic. They are based upon fractional divisions of the 360-degree circle of the ecliptic - as measured in arc from the point of an observer on the Earth.

Conjunction. Said of two planets occupying the same degree of Longitude along the Ecliptic. It is often classed as a position rather than an aspect.

Dividing the circle by one-half, results in the Opposition, a 180° separation, the reverse of a conjunction.

Dividing the circle by one-third, results in the Trine, or 120° separation.

Subdividing the one-half aspect, there results the square, quadrate or quartile (90°), Semisquare, semi-quadrate or semi-quartile (45°), and the sesquiquadrate (135°) - square plus semi-square - the inversion of the semisquare.

Subdividing the one-third aspect, yields the Sextile or Hexagon (60°), Semi-sextile (30°), and the Quincunx (150°) - the inversion of the Semi-sextile.

The matter of Orbs is one that has never been settled. The figures given are merely an average of opinion:

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