Degrees Operative

Name

Signs

When Exact

From

To

Conjunction

0

0

- 10°

+ 6

Semi-Sextile

1

30

28°

31

Semi-Square

45

42°

49

Sextile

2

60

56°

63

Square

3

90

84°

94°

Trine

4

120

113°

125°

Sesquiquadrate

41

135

132°

137°

Quincunx

5

150

148°

151°

Opposition

6

180

170°

186°

Names have been given to these Aspects, as follows: 0°, Prominence; 30°, Growth; 45°, Friction; 60°, Opportunity; 90°, Obstacle; 120°, Luck; 135°, Agitation; 150°, Expansion; 180°, Separation.

Quintile. A group of aspects, introduced by Kepler, based on a division of one-fifth of the circle. They have had limited adoption, and their value is chiefly in directions. They are:

Bi-Quintile 144°

Tridecile 108°

Decile or Semi-Quintile 36°

Quindecile 24°

Semi-Decile, or Vigintile 18°

Combust. Said of a planet closer than 5° to the Sun. It introduces factors that considerably alter the interpretation of the conjunction.

Cazimi. A planet within 0°17' of the Sun's longitude is said to be "in the heart of the Sun" - or Cazimi. Ancient authorities deemed that it fortified the planet as much as a Combust position debilitated it; but modern authorities generally ignore the distinction and classify it as combust, imparting to the nature a one-track viewpoint on all matters appertaining to the planet so placed.

Abscission, or Frustration. When a planet is simultaneously forming an aspect to two other planets, the one that culminates first may produce an abscission of light that will frustrate the influence of the second aspect. The term was much used by ancient writers, but unfortunately has been neglected by modern astrologers -- other than those who practice Horary astrology. v. Frustration.

Benefic. The aspects based on 3 are said to be benefic in their influence, though much depends upon the character of the planets involved. The Trine joins harmonious signs; the Sextile, those reasonably congenial.

Malefic. Those based on 2, combine signs that are less congenial, and operate generally at cross-purposes, hence are termed malefic. Modern astrologers tend to prefer malefic aspects between harmonious planets, to benefic aspects between malefic planets - but this enters into the realm of interpretation where mathematics yields to psychology. A planet thus aspected, particularly if by a malefic planet, is said to be afflicted.

Latitude, Parallels of. Latitude is measured in degrees of arc N. or S. of the Ecliptic. It is reasonable to assume that planets conjoined in latitude as well as longitude will impart a stronger accent than when at different distances above the ecliptic. The Zodiacal Parallel is a latitudinal aspect. Older authorities considered a Parallel effective between one planet in North and another in South Latitude, but modern authorities largely agree that both bodies must be on the same side of the Ecliptic. Within orbs of 1° it is a powerful influence, greatly intensifying the effect of a conjunction. On rare occasions, when planets are close to their nodes of intersection with the ecliptic, a parallel may result in an eclipse between planets. The eclipse of a planet by the Moon is of more frequent occurrence, and is termed an Occultation (qv.).

Declination, Parallel of. This is the same phenomenon as a Parallel of Latitude, except that longitudinal position is measured along the Equator in terms of Right Ascension, while latitudinal position is computed in terms of declination, measured in degrees N. or S. of the Equator instead of along the Ecliptic.

MUNDANE ASPECTS are those reckoned along the Equator, and measured in subdivisions of the nocturnal or diurnal semi-arc. For example: Any two planets that have a separation of two houses are in mundane Sextile; of four houses, in mundane Trine. Thus it is possible for two planets to be simultaneously in the mutual relationship of a mundane Trine and a zodiacal Square. Mundane aspects can be computed only on a map erected for a birth moment. They represent a computation of coincidental influences on a basis of time, in subdivisions of the Earth's period of rotation; instead of on a basis of degrees of arc, in subdivisions of the orbits of the bodies involved. Zodiacal Aspects, based on the degree of longitudinal separation along the ecliptic, are computed without reference to an hour of birth, and are the ones commonly employed in delineation.

Because of the alternation of signs of long and short ascension throughout the daily rotation of the Earth, equal units of arc rise over the horizon of an individual on the Earth's periphery, in disproportionate units of time; and vice versa. This affords one explanation of the phenomenon of the Orbs in reference to Aspects, and suggests that consideration should be given to the seasons at which a wide zodiacal aspect may become an exact mundane aspect.

Mundane Parallel. Parallel in Mundo. This has to do with a similarity of relationship between two planets on opposite sides of, and the same distance, measured along the Equator, from any one of the four angles of the horoscope. Mundane parallels bear no analogy to zodiacal parallels. A Rapt Parallel is a mundane parallel by direction, formed after birth, as a result of the Earth's rotation (axial), whereby the places of the planets are carried from East to West to the point where the two planets are equidistant from, and on opposite sides of the same angle. Another variety of mundane parallel by direction, is that formed when one planet advances to the same distance from an angle as that held by another planet at birth. These parallels are the invention of Placidus de Titus who held them in high esteem. Yet it appears that time tempered his judgment, for in his collection of Nativities he frequently employs zodiacal directions as taught by Ptolemy.

Strength of Aspects. The relative strength of aspects is a debatable factor, for so much depends on the intrinsic character of the rays. If you consider the rays as energy, each altered in character by virtue of the sign position of the planet from which it is emitted, the aspect determines the direction of the influence upon you as an individual. It is in the synthesis of qualitative, quantitative and directional factors that the practice of Astrology becomes both an art and a science.

Forming Aspects are considered more powerful than Separating Aspects; or at least the orb of influence is wider when forming. Some authorities make an exception in the case of the Sun and Moon, to the extent of placing the point of maximum influence from 2 to 5 degrees beyond the Degree in which the aspect becomes exact. There is the theory that separating aspects in the birth map represent influences which have already been made manifest; while forming aspects, particularly in the progressed map, represent influences which are yet to be experienced. Sepharial, in his Dictionary, has this to say regarding Separating Aspects: "When two bodies have been in exact aspect, the one which by its swifter motion moves away from the aspect, is said to separate from the other. When one of two bodies in aspect turns retrograde, it separates. When both bodies turn retrograde, doubtless a mutual separation is effected. In Horary Astrology these relations have distinct significations: the party representing the separating planet will decline the proposition, back out of the agreement, or annul the contract; the party represented by the retrograde planet will default in his agreement or contract; and when both turn retrograde there will be an annulment by mutual consent. Similar effects have been noted in regard to marriage."

Conjunction. This is classified as a constructive influence, though much depends on the nature of the planets. Modern authorities tend to reject the classification of aspects as good or bad, since a so-called bad aspect has constructive possibilities to an individual who has the strength of resolve to put it to constructive use.

Parallel. The same nature as a conjunction. Since it is usually coincident with a conjunction it serves to give it an added accent. This accent is helpful if it involves other aspects from favorable planets. The effect of a parallel is generally considered to be of longer duration than that of a conjunction.

Semi-Sextile (30°). An aspect of mixed quality, rhythmically favorable but involving planets in inharmonious signs.

Semi-Square or Semi-Quartile (45°). Generally termed a malefic aspect; somewhat mitigated, in case the aspecting planet is a benefic.

Sextile, Hexagon (60°). A favoring aspect, involving planets in congenial signs of the same polarity (q.v.). Alan Leo says of the Sextile aspect: that it partakes of the nature of Moon and Neptune; that it is more combining than any other aspect, and is often more potent and favorable than the trine; that its color largely depends on the nature of the planets involved, and of the Signs they occupy; and that while the trine may be said to denote negative goodness such as a reward for past deeds, the sextile denotes positive good in that it generates the activity that produces change and thus possesses greater potentiality for the future.

Square. Quartile (90°). Generally deemed unfavorable, since it represents the struggle of two forces at cross-purposes. It imposes severe tasks to be accomplished only through much concentration and self-denial -- often interpreted by the individual in terms of ambition.

Trine (120°). Supposedly the most favoring of aspects, joining planets in congenial signs of the same element. Trines are like having "a silver spoon in your mouth" - luck becoming "happy-go-lucky" for lack of the ambition that is born of challenge.

Sesquiquadrate (135°) Inversion of a Semi-square, and deemed equally unfortunate but less powerful.

Quincunx (150°). The inversion of a Semi-Sextile. Ptolemy called it inconjunct, practically rejecting it as an aspect of appreciable force. Modern statistics appear to indicate, however, that it has unrealized possibilities. It is presumed to be mildly favorable, but as it operates through inharmonious signs the resulting influence must be somewhat contradictory.

Opposition (180°). Proper interpretation must give consideration to the psychological stimulus resulting from whatever planetary influences are then in operation, from a sign and through a house.

Biquintile (144°). Classed as a harmonizing influence.

Quintile (72°). A mildly benefic aspect, but ineffectual when directed to malefic.

Semi-Quintile or Decile (36°). Kepler deemed it a good influence, but mild.

Semi-Decile (18°). Harmonious, but weak.

Inconjunct, Dissociate. These are terms sometimes applied to the Semisextile and the Quincunx aspects, as indicative that no relationship can exist between adjacent signs and houses, or between those which are one sign or house less than an opposition.

The aspects were anciently classified as benefic and malefic:

The benefic aspects were the Trine and Sextile. The conjunction is generally classed as a benefic aspect. In them the relationship is harmonious, between congenial signs, even though the influences related are often inharmonious -- because of the intrinsic nature of the rays so combined. They are deemed conducive of harmony, in that cosmic energy is released without obstruction.

The malefic aspects were the square and semisquare. The opposition is generally classed as malefic, even though it combines signs that are moderately congenial. These are generally deemed conducive of friction, in that two opposing forces challenge the individual's capacity for adjustment. There follows a condensed interpretation of the aspects:

According to the ancient philosophers two systems of force arc in operation, whereby Nature is maintained in a state of balance, and life enabled to manifest itself in physical form: These are the positive and the negative, the inflow and the outflow, the centrifugal and the centripetal, construction as opposed to destruction, expansion versus contraction. The result is a continual cycle of birth, maturity, decay and dissolution. Since these forces are equal, each complements the other.

All organic structures are builded of cells which in their simplest form are hexagonic spheroids, similar to those of the honeycomb. Therefore, the hexagon is the primary structural pattern of beneficence. When light enters at the external angle of 60°, and the internal angle of 120°, it necessarily illuminates all parts of the structure in equal lines of influence. The light that pours in at either of these angles, imparts exhilarating and harmonious vibrations which stimulate its continuous growth. Opposed to this is the process of crystallization, recognized in magnetism and electricity, wherein the two forces operate at right angles to each other - a geometrical relationship that is destructive to organic form. As a result, side by side through Nature two mutually antagonistic forces exist, which, despite their antipathy to each other, work together toward the ordered disposition of the whole: one based upon the quadrature, the other upon the hexagon - the square and the trine.

Astrology postulates: that the quadrate relationship between energy sources is destructive to form, through releasing the energy that is locked up in the various structures Nature has built; and that the trine aspects constitute the constructive side of Nature, whereby organic forms are created, nourished and perpetuated, to be released when subsequent destructive configurations are encountered.

Ancient astrologers who looked upon the Zodiac as representing the soul of Nature, divided it into four parts, making the beginning point of each part the apex of an equilateral triangle. Thus it obtained the twelve signs of the Zodiac and their corresponding Houses.

To establish a relationship between the physical body and these two systems of partitioning a sphere, one considers first that portion of the heavens which, like the physical body born into this world, is at that moment emerging from darkness into light; the eastern horizon -otherwise known as the Ascendant, the cusp of the First House; or as anciently termed, the Horoscope.

Aspectarian. A chronological list of all aspects formed during a specified period. Most astrology magazines acrry an Aspectarian for the concurrent month; and one for the year is now usually appended to the Ephemeris.

Asterism. A constellation. Sometimes misleadingly applied to a zodiacal Sign, but can be applied to the three signs of the same alement, considered collectively.

Asteroids. v. Solar System.

Astral Body. In occult terminology a replica of the physical body, but more subtle and tenuous. It penetrates every nerve, fibre and cell of the physical organism and is constantly in a supersensitive state of oscillation and pulsation. The psychic faculty within the astral body is impressionable to extra-sensory vibrations. The astrological concept is that of a magnetic field wherein the individual does most of his thinking, and from which he draws impressions by way of interpreting changes in the field due to cosmic radiation.

Astral Light. In occult terminology, the invisible region that surrounds the Earth, perceived by those who are psychically developed. Within its realm is recorded every condition, event or circumstance - past, present and future. It is called the "great terrestrial crucible," in which everything is resolved and perpetuated. The psychically gifted behold there, in panoramic detail, the histories of nations and individuals, and are able to reveal coming events by what they see mirrored on the astral screen. It has been spoken of as the Mercury of Nature.

Astral projection. In occult terminology, the partial or complete separation of the astral body from the physical body, and visiting another locality, near or far. This occurs in sleep - though, as a general rule, one does not recall the experience on waking. The adept can command his astral body to go any place he desires in order to make observations and investigations, and acquire essential information. Some dreams are the result of such travel episodes.

Astrolabe. A mechanical device, predecessor to the sextant, whereby mariners determined the time of day by the Sun, of the night by the stars, and the height and depth of mountains and valleys. The astrolabe of Christopher Columbus was on display at the Philadelphia Sesquicentennial. The oldest known example, called "The Mathematical Jewel," is of Persian origin. It was made by Ahmad and Mahud, sons of Ibraham (q.v.) the Astrologer of Isfahan, and is in the Lewis Evans collection in the Old Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, England. The invention is attributed by some to Hipparchus (q.v.) but others credit it to the Arabs, some 400 years prior.

Astrology. The science which treats of the influence upon human character of cosmic forces emanating from celestial bodies. It has been spoken of as the soul of astronomy. Its antiquity places it among the earliest records of human learning. To these ancient astrologers we owe the modern Science of Astronomy. According to Hindu lore Astrology reached its zenith some two hundred thousand years ago, and is presumed to have been first taught by the Manu who had charge of the fourth rootrace. In ancient times it enjoyed general acceptance, and was practiced by the Chaldeans, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs. It flourished in Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries. It is charged that the Spanish Inquisition was a cloak to disguise a secret purpose to stamp out Astrology. It was once termed Astromancy - divination by the stars.

Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Astrology. As practised by various authorities in various countries there are two fundamentally different methods, or approaches, to Astrology: the Geocentric and the Heliocentric. Geocentric Astrology is based upon calculations of the planetary positions as seen by the observer on the Earth, i.e, using the Earth as a center. Heliocentric Astrology bases its interpretations upon positions within the solar system with reference to the Sun as the center. While it is true that the Sun is the center, the effect of the motion as manifest on the Earth is the basis of most astrological interpretation. Therefore the vast majority of astrologers employ the geocentric calculations of the planets' positions.

However, these terms are used by many astrologers in a different sense, i.e., heliocentric when considering changes of position by virtue of the body's motion in orbit, and geocentric when considering changes of position with reference to the observer, by reason of the observer's personal orbit around the Earth -- the revolution of the periphery of the Earth around the Earth's center. Thus considered the Signs are heliocentric divisions, or Heliarcs, while the Houses are geocentric divisions, or Geoarcs.

There are several distinct branches of Astrology:

Natal, or Genethliacal - having to do with the birth figure and the subsequent transits of the bodies and their Progressed, or average net progress. v. Directions, Progressions.

Horary: fundamentally a Figure cast for the birth-moment of an idea, a question, or an event. Practitioners of this branch of Astrology usually take the moment when the question is propounded.

Electional: an application of Horary art whereby to choose the most propitious moment for initiating a new enterprise, or commencing a journey, etc.

Mundane, also termed Judicial Astrology: a consideration of the current positions of the planets with respect to their influence upon entire populations, or portions thereof, by countries, cities or localities, at Ingresses, eclipses, ordinary Lunations and Full Moons, and major transits or conjunctions.

Medical: the application of the science to questions of health, chiefly as a diagnostic aid when confronted with baffling symptoms of disease and obscure ailments.

Meteorological, also known as Astro-Meteorology: the application of the science to the forecasting of weather conditions, earthquakes and severe storms.

Agricultural: an application of Astrology to the planting and the harvesting of crops.

Astromancy. A system of divination by means of the stars, the practice of which had much to do with the popular connotation of Astrology with fortune-telling, which modern scientific Astrology has had to live down.

Astrometeorology. Investigation of the relation between the Solar system bodies and the weather.

Astronomical unit. Mean distance of Earth to Sun, or 92,900,000 miles; employed as a unit for indicating intra-solar system distances.

Astronomos. The title given by the priests to the Initiate in the seventh degree of the reception of the mysteries in the Initiation at Thebes in Egypt.

Astronomy. The science that deals with the heavenly bodies: their positions, motions, magnitudes and conditions.

Astrotheology. A system of theology founded on what is known of the heavenly bodies, and of the laws which regulate their movements.

Aten. The solar disk, or more specifically the light that proceeds from the sun, as defined by Akhenaten, or Amenhotep IV (obit. circa 1397 B.C.), father-in-law of King Tutankamen, who promulgated a religion largely based on astrological teachings.

Athazer. An ancient term applied to the Moon when in conjunction with the Sun, or separated from it by an arc of 12°, 45°, 90° 150°, 160°, or 180°.

Aura. In occult terminology, a pyschic effluvium that emanates from human and animal bodies and inanimate objects. It is composed of electro-vital and electro-mental magnetism; an envelope surrounding that of which it partakes - visible only to the psychic. The aura is multicolored and brilliant, or dull, according to the character or quality of the person or thing. To the seer, the aura of a person is an index to his hidden propensities.

Aurora Borealis, Northern Lights. Scientists associate the phenomena with unusual sun-spot activity, and astronomers are working on the theory that the sun-spot cycles, generally recognized as having some connection with economic trends, are the result of planetary movements. The most brilliant display of the Aurora Borealis in fifty years occurred on January 25, 1938. Transatlantic radio was interrupted and crowds in Holland, awaiting the birth of Princess Juliana's baby, cheered the display as a lucky omen for the little Princess Beatrix, who was born January 31, 1938, with 15° Aries on the Asc., and 6° Capricorn on the M.C. At this time Venus and the Sun were forming conjunctions with Jupiter, and Mars was forming a conjunction with Saturn.

Axis, Inclination of. The equators of rotating bodies appear never to parallel their orbits. Hence there is an inclination of the axis when considered in reference to the plane of the orbit. Within the solar system these inclinations arc, at this epoch, as follows: Mercury 72°, Venus 60°, the Earth 23^°, Mars 25°, Jupiter 3°, Saturn 26°, Uranus 102°, Neptune 155°, Pluto unknown. The inclination of the Sun's axis to the plane of the Earth's orbit is about 7°. Its inclination to the plane of its own orbit is unknown, because the Sun's orbit is itself unknown. It is claimed by some that there is an additional motion of the Earth's axis amounting to 50" a century, making an orbit of about 2^ million years, in the course of which the North Pole and the South Pole successively point to the Sun instead of as at present to the Pole Star. This theory is advanced by way of explanation for successive Ice Ages.

Axial rotation. The diurnal motion of the Earth around its axis; also similar motion on the part of any other celestial body. v. Solar System.

Azimene. Said of a planet posited in certain weak or lame degrees or arcs which, if ascending at birth, were supposed to make the native blind, or lame, or otherwise physically afflicted.

Azimuth. A point of the horizon and a circle extending to it from the zenith; or an arc of the horizon measured clockwise between the south-point of the horizon and a vertical circle passing through the center of any object.

Baal. (Lord). Among the Phoenicians the chief male divinity who appears to have symbolized the Sun, more particularly the Sun in Taurus. Baal was worshipped in agricultural festivals as the god of fertility of soil and increase of flocks. In successive periods of the history of the ancient Semitic races, the name was assigned to innumerable local deities. The Baal of Tyre was introduced among the Israelite settlers by Ahab. Hannibal was so named because he was supposed to be in favor with Baal.

Babel, Tower of. A temple dedicated to the study of the planets, which were supposed to divulge the secrets of life and guide human destiny.

Babylon. An ancient Semitic city in the Euphrates valley, which after 2250 B.C., as the capital of Babylonia, became a center of world commerce and of the arts and sciences, its life marked by luxury and magnificence. The city in which they built the Tower of Babel, its location coincides approximately with that of the modern city of Baghdad - now the center of a vast agricultural community. The Babylonians attached great importance to the motions of the planets, accurately fixed their orbits and worked out tables of the phases of the Moon, whereby eclipses could be correctly predicted. Their great astrological work, "The Illumination of Bel," was compiled within the period of 2100-1900 B.C.. From fragments of the tablets of another astrological work which has been preserved, it is found that their calendar began with March 21; and its twelve divisions, and their names, give evidence of astrological significance. Their story of the deluge closely parallels that of the Bible, and the location of their Mount Nisir (Mount of Refuge) is seemingly that of Mt. Ararat, where the ark stranded. Their Hanging Gardens were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. From what remains of their literature, it appears that with the rise of astrology there arose a wave of fatalism which, however, later gave way to a doctrine of self-determination - the belief that the stars impel but do not compel. Babylon is generally conceded to have been the cradle of astrology. It was overthrown in 539 A. D., by Xerxes, the Persian.

Babylonian. An astrologer: so-called because the Babylonians were famed for their knowledge of Astrology.

Barren Signs. Gemini, Leo and Virgo. The Moon in Sagittarius, and Aquarius is also said to signify a tendency toward barrenness. v. Signs: Barren and Fertile.

Beholding Signs. Those which have the same declination; i.e., at equal distances from the Tropics; as Aries and Virgo, Taurus and Leo, Gemini and Cancer, Libra and Pisces, Scorpio and Aquarius, Sagittarius and Capricorn. Because such pairs of Signs were either both Northern, or both Southern, they were by Ptolemy deemed to be "of equal power." This consideration, however, applied only when two such Signs were joined by a body in each, mutually configurated.

Bel. (Lord). The Babylonian form of Baal. He was a member of the supreme triad of deities: Anu, god of the heavens; Bel, god of the Earth; and Ea, god of the waters.

Belts of Jupiter. A varying number of dusky belt-like bands or zones encircling the planet Jupiter, parallel to its equator. It suggests the existence of an atmosphere, the clouds forced into a series of parallels through the rapidity of rotation, the dark body of the planet showing through relatively clear spaces between.

Beneflc Aspects. Planetary relations, or familiarities, which permit the unobstructed release of cosmic energy, hence conducive to harmony. (v. Aspects: Benefic, Malefic.) B. Influences. Those produced by benefic planets and aspects, either in the Nativity or by transits. B. Planets. The so-called benefics: Venus and Jupiter, by some the Sun. (v. Planets.)

Besieged. A benefic planet situated between two malefics, within orbs of each, is said to be besieged and therefore unfortunately placed. Some authorities restrict its application to a Significator when between and within orbs of two benefics. Older authorities, who applied the term to a planet situated between any two planets, considered a planet between Venus and Jupiter to be favorably besieged, but if between Mars and Saturn it was in an extremely unfavorable position.

Bestial signs. Those which have been symbolized by beasts, or animals: Aries, Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, the last half of Sagittarius, Capricorn and Pisces. v. Signs.

Bicorporeal. Said of double-bodied Signs: Gemini, Sagittarius and Pisces. As originally employed by Ptolemy, bicorporeal was the only term by which he characterized the signs that are now designated as Mutable, or Deductive. Thus it is apparent that he classified Virgo also as bicorporeal. v. Signs.

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