Brutish signs v Signs

Buddha. (1) Gautama Siddhartha, founder of Buddhism in the 6th century B.C., was classed by his followers as the perfect example of a divine godly man. His religion taught tolerance, universal compassion, charity, love, self-sacrifice, poverty, and contentment with one's lot. His faith was never enforced by fire and sword. (2) Esoterically connected with the planet Mercury, as the enlightened and wise one who has attained perfect wisdom.

Cabala, Cabalism; also Kabalism, kabalistic. (1) The Cabalists assume that every word of the inspired writings embodies a secret meaning, the key to which only they possess; (2) a summation of the ancient lore accredited to the ancient rabbis of Israel.

Cacodemon. An evil spirit; the elemental. A term once employed in connection with the twelfth house, but no longer in use.

Cadent. Those houses which fall away from the angles; the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th houses. Cadent Planets are those which occupy Cadent Houses, and whose influence is thereby weakened. v. Houses.

Caduceus. n. The wand of Hermes, or Mercury, the messenger of the gods. A cosmic, sidereal, or astronomical symbol; its significance changing with its application. Originally a triple-headed serpent, it is now a rod with two serpents twined around it, and two wings at the top. As a medical insignia it may appear as a rod surmounted by a ball, representing the Solar orb, and a pine cone, representing the pineal gland. The entwined white and black serpents represent the struggle between good and evil - disease and cure. Another form is the Thyrus, often pictured in the hands of Bacchus. Astronomically, the head and tail represent the Nodes - the points on the ecliptic where Sun and Moon meet in an eclipse. v. Aaron's Rod.

Calendar. A system of reckoning and recording the time when events occur; the coordination of the days, weeks, and months of the year with the cycles upon which they are based.

The frequency with which astrologers have been known to accept without question a birthdate that a little inquiry would reveal as a Julian date, rather suggests that sometimes we strain at a gnat and swallow a camel: calculating with great care to the hour and minute, cusps and planets' places for a date that is 10 or 11 days in error according to the calendar on which our computations are based.

Throughout the centuries the recording of time has been a problem, to the study of which lifetimes have been devoted. To the historian the correct day is important, but to the astrologer the correct hour of the correct day is not only important - it is essential. An aftermath of World War II will probably be an increasing number of contacts with people who have Julian birthdates, and who know so little about astrology that the importance of reimpressing their birthdate upon their memory in Gregorian terms never occurs to them.

To render more vivid the problem of the world's calendar makers, there is presented a survey of the manner in which it has been met in different epochs and in remote countries.

Fundamentally time is reckoned by the Earth's rotation on its axis with reference to the Sun, a day; by the Moon's revolution around the Earth, a month; and by the Earth's revolution around the Sun, a year. Of mechanical gadgets for recording the passing of time, their number is legion; but their correction always comes from the astronomical observatory.

The recurrence of the Vernal Equinox on the same day each year is the one supreme and inflexible necessity - and that we have not even yet fully attained. In astrology, the complexities arising out of a variety of calendars constitute a major problem. The day is universal as a unit of time, but to group days into months, and months into a year, and keep in step with the universe and the seasons introduces serious difficulties. Days do not add up to lunar months, and months do not add up to years, other than through recourse to numerous devices and ingenious compromises.

The planets pursue their inexorable courses, wholly unmindful of man's need for a method whereby to determine the places they occupied at a given moment of time. The moment is easy enough to identify when it occurs, but how to record the moment in terminology that will suffice to identify it a century later is a vastly more difficult problem. A study of the various calendars is perhaps the shortest way to an appreciation of the importance of a matter which involves the basic facts with which the astrologer must deal.

The Mohammedan calendar is one of the most primitive. It is strictly a Lunar calendar, the year consisting of twelve lunar months, which retrograde through the seasons in about 32% years. To reconcile the lunar cycle to a given number of complete days, a leap year is introduced on the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 21st, 24th, 26th and 29th years of a thirty year cycle, making these years consist of 355 days instead of 354. The names of the months and the number of days are:

1, Muharram (30); 2, Saphar (29); 3, Rabia I (30); 4, Rabia II (29); 5, Jomada I (30); 6, Jomada II (29); 7, Rajah (30); 8, Shaaban (29); 9, Ramadan (30); 10, Shawaal (29); 11, Dulkasda (30); and 12, Dulheggia (29 or 30). The years are calculated from July 16, 622 A.D., the day following the Hegira, the flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina after an attempted assassination. The beginning of the 46th cycle, with the first day of Muharram, in the year 1351, compares to May 7, 1932 of the Gregorian calendar; continuing:

1365

Dec. 6, 1945

1366

Nov. 25, 1946

1367

Nov. 15, 1947

1368

Nov. 3, 1948

1369

Oct. 24, 1949

1370

Oct. 13, 1950

1371

Oct. 2, 1951

1372

Sept. 21, 1952

1373

Sept. 10, 1953

1374

Aug. 30, 1954

To find the Gregorian equivalent to any Mohammedan date multiply 970,224 by the Mohammedan year, point off six decimal places and add 621.5774. The whole number will be the year A.D., and the decimal multiplied by 365 will be the day of the year.

The Egyptian calendar divided the year into twelve months of 30 days each, with five supplemental days following each twelfth month. Because it ignored the quarter day annual loss, it likewise retrograded through the seasons in 1460 years, hence 1461 Egyptian years are equal to 1460 Julian years. The Egyptian year has been called vague, because at different epochs it has commenced at different seasons of the year.

The inadequacy of these calendars, because totally unrelated to the cycle of the seasons, is obvious. The Hindu calendar of India is one of the early lunisolar calendars, wherein the year is divided into twelve months, with an intercalated month bearing the same name, inserted after every month in which there are two lunations, which is about every three years. The year commences about April 11, and is divided into the following months: Baisakh, Jeth, Asarh, Sarawan, Bhadon, Asin or Kuar, Kartik, Aghan, Pus, Magh, Phalgun, and Chait.

Another lunisolar compromise is the Chinese calendar, wherein the year begins with the first new Moon after the Sun enters Aquarius. It consists of 12 months, with an intercalary month every 30 months, each month divided into thirds. It dates from 2697 B.C., whereby the Gregorian equivalent of the Chinese year 4647 is 1950 A.D..

The Jewish calendar is likewise a lunisolar calendar, which reckons from 3761 B.C., the traditional year of the Creation. The ecclesiastical year begins with the first New Moon after the Vernal Equinox, but the civil year begins with the new Moon following the Autumnal Equinox. The years are either defective' of 353 d., regular, of 354 d. or perfect, of 355 d., with an intercalated month on the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th years of the 19-year Metonic cycle. Each month begins on the new moon -- not the moment of the Lunation but of the new moon's visibility -- allowing some elasticity for bringing certain Festivals on suitable days of the week. The Jewish civil calendar, and its important days, runs thus:

1. The so-called October new Moon. Tishri (30 d.). New Year's day, or Rosh Hashanah; containing the Feast of Gedelis; Yom- kippur; Succoth, Hashana Rabba; Shemini-Atzereth; and Simchath- Torah. 2. Heshvan (29 or 30 d.). 3. Kislev (29 or 30 d.) containing Hanaca. 4. Teveth (29 d.); containing the Fast of Teveth. 5. Shevat (30 d.). 6. Adar (29 d. or 30 d.). Ve-Adar (29 d.). An intercalary month on leap years, containing the Fast of Esther, and Purim. 7. Nissan (30 d.); containing Pessach, the first day of the Passover. 8. Iyar (29 d.); containing Lag B'omer. 9. Sivan (30 d.); containing Shevuoth. 10. Tamuz (29 d.); containing the Fast of Tamuz, for the taking of Jerusalem. 11. Av (30 d.) ; containing the Fast of Av, for the Destruction of the Temple. 12. Ellul (29 d.).

The current Lunar cycle, the 301st, consists of these comparative years:

5701

... Oct. 3, 1940

5702

Sept. 22, 1941

5703

Sept. 12, 1942

5704

Sept. 30, 1943

5705

Sept. 18, 1944

5706

Sept. 8, 1945

5707

Sept. 26, 1946

5708

Sept. 15, 1947

5709

... Oct. 4, 1948

5710

Sept. 24, 1949

5711

... Sept. 12, 1950

5712

Oct. 1, 1951

5713

Sept. 20, 1952

5714

Sept. 1O, 1953

5715

Sept. 28, 1954

5716

Sept. 17, 1955

5717

Sept. 6, 1956

5718

Sept. 26, 1957

5719

... Sept. 15, 1958

The Roman calendar is presumed originally to have consisted of ten months, of a total of 304 days, beginning with Martius and ending with December. Numa added January and February, bringing it up to 355 d., and ordered an intercalary month every second year. The Romans counted backwards from three fixed points in the month: the calends, the 1st; the ides, the 15th of March, May, July and October, and the 13th of other months; and the nones, the 8th day before the ides. Thus the ides of March was March 15th; March 13th was the third day before the ides; March 7th was the nones of March; while March 30th was the third day before the calends of April.

Abuse of power by the pontiffs and the many wars of conquest prior to the Christian era finally so disrupted the Roman calendar that after his conquest of Egypt Julius Caesar brought to Rome a Greek astronomer, Sosigines, who with the aid of Marcus Fabius accomplished the first great calendar reform, the Julian calendar, named after himself, which went into effect through the civilized world in 45 B.C., and continued in use until 1582 A.D. These reforms consisted of the following:

(1) The equinox was returned to March, by inserting two months between November and December of 46 B.C., creating what was thereafter known as "the last year of confusion." (2) The lunar year and the intercalary month were abolished. (3) The length of the mean solar year was fixed at 365.25 days, the length at which the ancients had figured it. (4) To compensate for the accumulation of these fractions into a day every four years, the extra day was inserted at the end of February, then the last month of the year, making it a "leap year" of 366 days. (5) Renamed Quintilis, the fifth month, after himself, calling it Juli. (6) Evenly distributed the days among the months, 30 days to the even months, and 31 days to the odd months, except February which had 30 days only in leap year. (7) Ordered it to take effect January 1, 45 B.C. However, despite the fact that the Julian calendar went into effect on January 1st, the civil year continued to date from March 25th.

The system was slightly disarranged by Augustus, who renamed Sextilis as August, but refusing to be honored by a shorter month than Julius, ordered it increased to 31 days, reducing February to 28 days except on leap years. Hence, to him we owe the irregular arrangement of the 30 and 3i day months, and the poem we moderns must recite in order to tell which are which. He did, however, render one important service, not without its droll aspects, by suspending leap years for some eleven years to correct a 3-day error which had progressively accumulated because the pontiffs had been intercalating every third instead of every fourth year for some 36 years, and this error of from 1 to 3 days in the chronology of the period has never been corrected.

Meanwhile the Equinox continued to retrograde. When Julius introduced his reform it fell on March 25th; by 325, the Council at Nicea, it was the 21st; by 1570 it was the 11th. The Venerable Bede had called attention to it in the 8th Century and John Holywood in the 13th. Roger Bacon finally wrote a thesis on calendar reform and sent it to the Pope; and in 1474 Pope Sixtus IV summoned Regiomontanus to Rome to superintend a reconstruction of the calendar, but he died with the task unfinished.

A century later Aloysius Lilius, a Verona physician and astronomer and doubtless an astrologer, worked out what he believed to be the exact requirements for a calendar that would keep step with the seasons. After his death his brother presented the plan to Pope Gregory XII, who gathered a group of learned men to discuss it, including Clavius, who later wrote an 800-page Treatise explaining it. Thus it was that after five years of study the Gregorian calendar was put into effect in 1582, instituting the following reforms:

(1) Ten days were dropped by ordering October 5th to be counted as October 15th. (2) The length of the solar year was corrected to 365 d. 5 h. 49 m. 12 s. (3) The year was made to begin January 1. (4) The centesimal years were made leap years only if divisible by 400 - thereby gaining the fraction of a day per hundred years that in fifteen centuries had amounted to ten days.

The new calendar was immediately adopted in all Roman Catholic countries, but the rest of the world was slow to accept it. Germany, Denmark and Sweden did not adopt it until 1700.

In Anglo-Saxon England the year began December 25th, until William of Normandy, following his conquest of England, ordered it to begin on January 1st, chiefly because this was the day of his coronation. Later England adopted March 25th, to coincide with the date on which most of the Christian peoples of the medieval epoch reckoned the beginning of the year. By edict Constantine later made Easter the beginning of the year, and it continued to be observed as New Year's Day until 1565, when Charles IV changed it back to January 1st.

Not until 1752 did Britain finally adopt the Gregorian calendar, suppressing 11 days and ordering that the day following September 2, 1752 be accounted as September 14th. Those who objected to the disruption of the week of festivities with which they were wont to celebrate the New Year, March 25th to April 1st, were sent mock gifts, or paid pretendedly ceremonious calls on April 1st, a custom that survives today in April Fool's Day.

The countries under the sway of the Greek orthodox church continued to follow the Julian calendar, and not until 1918 did Russia finally adopt it.

Those to whom the calendar is an economic necessity, and who are proposing various calendar reforms designed to facilitate interest computations and achieve uniformity of holidays, find themselves impeded by the requirements of the Ecclesiastical Calendar as set forth by the Council of Nicea, 325 A.D., as follows:

(1) Easter must fall on a Sunday; (2) This Sunday must follow the 14th day after the Paschal Moon; (3) The Paschal Moon is that Full Moon of which the Lunation 14 days thereafter falls on or next after the day of the Vernal Equinox; (4) The Vernal Equinox is fixed in the calendar as the 21st of March.

It was then provided that if the 14th day after the Paschal Moon falls on a Sunday, the following Sunday is to be celebrated as Easter - to make certain that it did not coincide with the Jewish Passover. Thereby did history again repeat itself, for according to Dio Cassius the Egyptians began the week on Saturday, but the Jews, from hatred of their ancient oppressors, made it the last day of the week.

To make Easter a fixed date in the calendar, such as April 8th, the suggestion of which has been advanced, would not only disturb the ecclesiastical calendar, but most of the proposed plans would destroy the continuity of the days of the week and upset the system of planetary hour rulerships which is almost as ancient as the recording of time. The seven days of the week represented the quadrants of the Moon's period in an age when time was reckoned almost entirely by the Moon. Methuselah's great age of 969 years was doubtless that many lunar months, then called years, which if reduced to Gregorian years as we know them would make him around 79 years of age.

The all but universal division of the year into twelve months, and of the Earth's annual orbit into twelve arcs, appears to be a recognition of the changes in equilibrium that take place during the traversal of the circuit: a moving body (the Earth) bent into an orbit, by the attraction of a gravitational center (the Sun) which also pursues an orbit around a more remote gravitational center (the center of our Milky Way galaxy). Present astronomical opinion places this center at a remote point in the direction of 0° Capricorn, which is also the direction of the Earth's polar inclination. This suggests that it may not be merely the Earth that oscillates, causing the pole to describe the circle from which results the 25,000-year precessional cycle, but the entire plane of the Earth's motion. This would be analogous to the Moon's intersection of the plane of the Earth's orbit at the Nodes, at an inclination of 5°, thereby producing a three-dimensional motion. The Earth's orbit may even be inclined to the Sun by the amount of the polar inclination making the equinoctial points the Earth's nodes of intersection with the plane of the Sun's orbit.

In any event in order that the calendar shall coincide with the seasons it must bear a fixed relationship to the Vernal Equinox, for in the last analysis the unit by which the year is determined is the Earth's orbit as measured from one Vernal Equinox to the next. The few moments of time represented by the discrepancy between a complete circle and the precession of the point of reference is the only figment of time actually thrown away and unaccounted for in any calendar.

If we must have calendar reform, it would be far more practical to make the year begin at the Vernal Equinox, and so allocate the days among the months that the first day of each successive month shall coincide approximately with the ingress of the Sun into each sign. This could be accomplished by 12 months of 30 days each, with a 31st day after the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th months, and on leap years after the 12th month; and by making all the 31st days holidays or moratorium days, hence not to be included in any calculations of interest, rent or other legal considerations. The legal year would consist 360 days, and computations be thereby greatly simplified.

If some one February were ordered prolonged by 20 days, February 48th to be followed by March 1st on the day of the Vernal Equinox, it would reinstate September to December as respectively the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th months, and end the year with February 30th, or on leap years, the 3st. The holidays could readily be celebrated on these moratorium days, and even the Fourth of July could preserve its name and character and still be observed on the moratorium day that preceded the first day of July.

There would be no advantage in making Easter a fixed date, and its determination under present rules could still be done as readily as is the date for the Jewish Passover. Such a reform would, however, result in great psychological gain to the peoples of the world. Some claim, on Biblical authority, that the year should begin on the Summer Solstice, and that by dedicating to the Creator the middle of the 3 days when the Sun hangs motionless, the year will divide into 2 halves of equal size, each consisting of 182 days - the first half feminine and the second half masculine.

The importance of a New Year point of beginning is to be seen in the manner in which in all ages the advent of the New Year has been celebrated with festivities.

Babylon, in 2250 B.C., celebrated New Year at the Vernal Equinox, with an 11-day festival, Zagmuk, in honor of their patron deity, Marduk. The Egyptians, Phoenicians and Persians celebrated it at the time of the Autumnal Equinox. Until the fifth century B.C., the Greeks celebrated it at the Winter Solstice, as did the Romans with a festival dedicated to Saturn - the Saturnalia. To counteract this revelry the early Christians celebrated it in commemoration of the birth of Jesus with prayer and acts of charity. When the year was made to begin on January 1st, Christmas was shifted to December 25th, the octave of New Year's day, the while Pagan Rome made sacrifices to Janus, after whom January was named. Janus, guardian deity of gates, was represented with two faces, watching both entering and departing wayfarers: the going out of the old year and the coming in of the new.

Emperors began extorting tribute, strena, by way of New Year's gifts. Henry III of England followed this precedent, a custom which did not become entirely obsolete until the Commonwealth.

The Scottish name for New Year's Eve is Hogmany, when the children ran around singing and begging gifts in the form of oaten cakes. The Parsees, Persians who emigrated to India, celebrate Yazdegera with worship of their divinities and visits to their friends to join hands in the ceremony of hamijar. The Druids distributed sprigs of sacred misletoe. On the continent the New Year giving of strenae "for luck" still survives, but in English-speaking countries it has been superseded by the Christmas gift, while the wassail-bowl has now become a bowl of eggnog.

Cancer The fourth sign of the zodiac. v. Signs.

Cappella. A yellow star, in 20° Gemini, the spectrum of which more nearly than that of any other bright Northern star, resembles the spectrum of our Sun.

Capricorn. The tenth sign of the zodiac. v. Signs.

Caput Draconis. The Dragon's Head. v. Moon's Node.

Cardinal Signs. Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn -- whose cusps coincide with the cardinal points of the compass: Aries, East; Cancer, North; Libra, West; and Capricorn, South. v. Signs.

Casting the Horoscope. The term used by astrologers to imply the calculations necessary to be made, prior to the delineation of the nativity. v. Figure.

Cataclysmic Planet. Uranus, which combines both teh magnetic and the electric elements, producing sudden effects. Catahibazon. An Arabic term for Cauda Draconis. v. Moon's Node. Cauda Draconis. The Dragon's Tail. v. Moon's Node.

Cazimi. An Arabian astronomical term applied to the center of the Solar disc. It is employed to describe a planet located within an arc of seventeen minutes (17') of the Sun's longitude: or by some authorities within half a degree of the Sun's center. It is then said to be "in the heart of the Sun." Older authorities considered that this position fortified the planet as much as combustion debilitates it. In his dictionary, James Wilson scoffed at this "silly distinction," saying that a planet so placed "is undoubtedly in the worst state of combustion." Most modern authorities are inclined to agree with him, although the favorable and unfavorable qualities it imparts vary according to the planet involved. v. Combust.

Celestial Sphere. If one pictures the sphere we call the Earth, enlarged to embrace the visible heavens, the resulting concept can be called the celestial sphere. If it is a true sphere, any circle drawn around it can be termed a circumference. To locate any particular circle as a circumference, implies the selection of some point of reference.

The Horizontal System. If your particular location on the Earth is selected as your point of reference, the point directly overhead is the zenith. The opposite point, below the Earth, is the Nadir. At right angles to these is a plane which is called the Horizon: the extension to the Celestial circle of the line which, from the point you occupy, intersects earth and sky. These established, you have a Vertical circle running from the Zenith, through a middle point between East and West, to the Nadir; and similar circles running through each degree all around the horizon. The distance of each of these circles from your circle is measured by the arc at which the circles intersect at the Zenith - termed Azimuth. Parallel to the Horizon are Parallels of altitude. These are measured by the arc separating the radius of your horizon from a line drawn from the same center to a given parallel of altitude.

The trouble with this system is that a location based upon your position fails to describe the same location as viewed from any other point on the Earth's surface.

The Equator System. This takes as a point of reference the diurnal rotation of the Earth around its axis. Extending the North and South poles, you have the North and South Celestial poles. Extending the Equator, you have the Celestial Equator. The Equator is intercepted by Hour Circles, whereby location is indicated in hours and minutes of Right Ascension, measured Eastward from the Zero Circle which passes through Greenwich. Parallel to the Equator are Parallels of Declination, indicated by their angular distance plus, if North of the Equator; and minus if South.

With your celestial sphere marked off on this system, it can be seen that the Sun does not travel around this Celestial equator; but instead, its orbit is inclined to that of the Equator some 23.5 degrees. The points at which the Sun's apparent orbit intersects the Equator are the Equinoxes, and the points of greatest separation are the Solstices. (These names have to do with an entirely different but coincidental factor. v. Precession.)

The Ecliptic System. The path of the Sun, called the Ecliptic, is based on the annual revolution of the Earth around the Sun. Taking this apparent path of the Sun as a circumference, you have at right angles thereto the North and South poles of the Ecliptic: connected by vertical circles of Longitude measured in degrees Eastward from the Vernal Equinox. Circles parallel to the Ecliptic are measured in degrees of Latitude North or South.

Stretching for some 8 degrees on either side of the Ecliptic is a belt in which lie the orbits of all the solar system bodies, each inclined in various degrees to the Earth's orbit. Since Hipparchus (q.v.), the greatest of the ancient astronomers, this belt has been divided into twelve 30° arcs, or signs, measured from the Vernal Equinox; the signs named from the constellations which once coin- cided with these arcs, but which because of the Precession of the Equinoxial point now no longer coincide. The statement that this disproves astrology is sheer ignorance, for no modern astrologer ascribes the sign influences to their background of stars, but to conditions of momentum and gravitation within the earth by virtue of its annual revolution around the Sun. (v. Zodiac; Precession; Galactic Center.) Many of these terms are loosely used by some astrologers, largely because they lack complete astronomical understanding of the factors on which their map of the heavens for a given moment is erected. (v. Map of the Heavens.)

Vertical Sphere. The circle of observation in which one stands when facing South (probably so termed because it is the observer's horizon raised vertically and projected upon the heavens), is the circle that is presumably subdivided into twelve equal 2-hour segments as it passes over the horizon, which divisions are termed the Houses of a Nativity. On the Equator these Houses are equal in both time and arc, but they become increasingly unequal in arc as one passes N. or S. from the Equator. This results from the declination of the Poles, and the consequent inclination of the Ecliptic to the

Equator. The planets which are posited in these signs pass obliquely through the semi-arc of the Ecliptic to the Mid-heaven - not the zenith. Therefore the position which a planet will occupy at some future moment, to which it is desired to direct it, must be calculated by Oblique Ascension.

In an effort to reconcile the rising or ascendant moment at which a planet passes above the horizon, with its oblique ascension along the Ecliptic to a mid-heaven point that is on the same longitudinal circle as the Zenith, but a considerable distance removed from it, various attempted compromises have resulted in several different systems of House Division (q.v.). The horizon system appears to yield the correct House positions of the planets in a birth map, but the directing (q.v.) of planets to the positions they will occupy at some future moment, requires the application of Oblique Ascension, both to the planets' places and to the progressed cusps.

For a concise classification of the term, note the appended table: THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Circle of reference Horizon Celestial Equator Ecliptic

Poles Zenith N. celestial pole Midheaven

Nadir S. celestial pole Immum Coeli

Secondary Circles Vertical circles Hour Circles Latitude circles

Parallels of altitude Parallels of declination Parallels of Latitude Coordinates Altitude Declination

Celes. Latitude

Azimuth Right Ascension Celes.

Longitude

Zero Circle Vertical c. thru S. Hour c. thru Ver. Latit. c.

thru V.

point Equinox Equinox.

Direction of first Through West Eastward Eastward coordinate

Ceres. (1) Daughter of Ops and Saturn; a Roman goddess of growing vegetation, particularly corn. Her day of celebration occurred on April 19th. (2) The first of the Asteroids (q.v.) to be discovered.

Chaldaeans. First a Semitic tribe, but later the magi of Babylonia, astrologers and diviners. From among them came "the wise men from the East." We know little of Chaldaean astrology, but some idea of their teachings are to be gleaned from the Chaldaean Oracles. With them Astrology was a religion, but of a far different type from any which has survived to modern times. The Chaldaean priests were famous Astrologers. They held that the world is eternal, without beginning or end; that all things are ordered by Divine providence; and that the Sun, Mars, Venus, Mercury and Jupiter are "interpreters," concerned with making known to man the will of God. From the regularity of motions in the heavenly bodies, they inferred that they were either intelligent beings, or were under some presiding intelligence. From this arose Sabianism, the worship of the host of heaven: Sun, Moon and Stars. It originated with the Arabian kingdom of Saba (Sheba), whence came the Queen of Sheba. The chief object of their worship was the Sun, Belus. To him was erected the tower of Belus, and the image of Belus. They did not worship the stars as God, who they thought of as too great to be concerned with mundane affairs; but they worshipped those whom they believed He had appointed as mediators between God and man. Their religion was based upon a belief in one impersonal, universal Principle, but to which they gave no name. To their lesser gods they erected huge temples, of a peculiar construction, specially adapted for star worship. Here they healed the sick, and performed certain magical ceremonies. An inscription on the pedestal of a statue erected to Nebo, reads: "To the god Nebo, guardian of the mysteries, director of the stars: he who presides at the rising and setting of the sun; whose power is immutable, and for whom the heaven was created." In the time of Alexander the Great, 356 B.C., the Chaldaeans alleged that their Astrology had existed 473,000 years.

Chaldaean Oracle. An Oracle venerated as highly by the Chaldaeans as was the one at Delphi, by the Greeks. It taught that "Though Destiny may be written in the stars, it is the mission of the divine soul to raise the human soul above the circle of necessity." The Oracle promised victory to any one who developed that masterly will. The Chaldaean teachings with regard to karma and reincarnation, are today found in Theosophy.

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