As already noted, the way in which Jung's psychology should be applied to astrology has been an object of some controversy among astrologers. It seems safe to conclude that, although it may have been born from astrological ideas, Jung's psychological typology has developed a character of its own, so that it is safer not to try and establish one-for-one correspondences between the elements and the "four functions." This case is argued eloquently by Robert Hand in his book Horoscope Symbols:
Astrology understood as a system of psychology in its own right has a symbolic framework much more powerful than any in orthodox psychology. It would be unrealistic to expect that one man in one lifetime could develop an understanding of symbols as profound as that of astrology, which has been developing for thousands of years.
—Garry Phillipson and Peter Case
Centre for Psychological Astrology. http://www.cpalondon.com/index.html.
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