Pythagoras, a Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer, lived from approximately 580 to 500 b.c.e. Pythagoras was the first to conceive of the heliocentric theory of the universe (the notion that Earth and the planets revolve around the Sun), a notion that did not catch on until Copernicus. Pythagoras and his followers also developed basic mathematical notions, such as the concepts of equation and proportion.
Pythagoras is said to have searched widely for wisdom and is believed to have introduced the idea of reincarnation to the Western world. One of his teachings regards the "music of the spheres," the notion that the intervals between the planets correspond to musical tones and that the movements of the planets produce an ethereal music. Pythagoras's significance for astrology is that he clearly formulated the notion that the human being is a miniature version (microcosm) of the larger universe (macrocosm). The microcosm and the macrocosm are linked by—and affect each other through—certain correlations. This notion is basic to ancient astrology.
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