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Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun, is the largest body in the solar system, containing two-thirds the mass of the entire solar system outside the Sun. It is like a miniature planetary system all by itself. Since 2000, Jupiter is now known to have 28 moons of varying sizes. The four largest of them are easily visible with even a small telescope. Galileo discovered these larger moons in 1610. They are called Galilean satellites. Copernicus's model of the heliocentric solar system was supported by the fact that these bodies were noticed to be orbiting another planet.

Jupiter begins a grouping of planets that have a different composition from the four terrestrial planets. These are referred to as the Jovian planets because of their giant sizes. (Jove was the chief Roman deity.) Jupiter's gassy composition is a combination of 90 percent hydrogen and 10 percent helium. It has no solid surface at all. Jupiter rotates once every 10 hours. It orbits the Sun every 11.86 years. Its most distinguishing feature is the giant red spot. Observations from the 1979 Voyager mission identified the red spot as the vortex of a violent, long-lasting anticyclonic storm, similar to big storms on earth. Superbolts of giant-sized lightning and giant polar aurorae were also Voyager discoveries about Jupiter.

Early Greek mythology called Jupiter Zeus, and the Romans called him Jove. Jupiter was the son of Saturn (Kronos.) Just as the Oracle of Delphi predicted to Saturn, Zeus was the son to dethrone him, as he had overpowered his own father, Ouranos.

Zeus and his brothers drew lots for their share of the universe. Zeus, Lord of the Sky, became chief of the Gods. His power was greater than all the others combined. He was righteous and demanded right action from men, not sacrifices. Jupiter is associated with the idea of justice. His low side made him out of control with his anger and his incalculable use of lightning bolts. He was never a faithful husband. He often acted like a storm cloud, building things up to turbulence. His high side can make things glorious. He gives hope and honors and bestows great gifts. Zeus was known for his great highs and lows.

In Mesopotamian astrology, Jupiter was linked to Marduk, ruler of the gods. Marduk was associated with wisdom, justice, water, and vegetation. Jupiter, known as the Greater Benefic, is the planet of hope, possibilities, expansion, and plenty. It is the most diurnal planet, next to the Sun. Jupiter has beneficial qualities in a nocturnal chart, as well. Jupiter rules the fire triplicity at night. It rules the masculine fire sign, Sagittarius. It is adventurous and robust in a diurnal chart. Jupiter is also the traditional ruler of the feminine water sign, Pisces. It is exalted in Cancer. Jupiter's affinity with water signs makes it more compassionate and generous. In a nocturnal chart, Jupiter is more subdued and moderate. Jupiter is in its fall in Capricorn and its detriment in Virgo, both earth signs. This shows how unhappy Jupiter is when forced to conform and fit into rigid forms.

Jupiter is a social planet. Its influence is open, expansive, and temperate. When in sect, it confirms and radifies what the Sun selects. When contrary to sect, it creates obstacles to stabilization because too much is included. In the hellenistic system, the star Jupiter is assigned the special essence of reputation and crowns of office and expectations.

When Jupiter is dignified its influence is magnanimous, mild tempered, just, wise, and religious. When not dignified its influence can be scattered, over done, shallow, indifferent, and easily led astray. Its real character is good-natured, freedom loving, confident, and conscious of right and wrong, wanting to do what is best. Its optimistic outlook often brings good fortune and opportunity. There is ease to life that allows for luck and happiness.

Jupiter is traditionally associated with begetting children, desire, knowledge, friendships with great men, abundance, great gifts, freedom, trust, possessions, justice, reputation, preferments of priests, government, inheritances, benefaction, confirma

An engraving from the seventeenth century of Jupiter with his thunderbolt and eagle. Reproduced by permission of Fortean Picture Library.

tion of good things, and deliverance from bad things. It represents officials, administrators, advisors, counselors, aristocrats, aristocracy, and foreign ministry. It rules law, courts, judges, lawyers, and the judicial system, as well as clergy, priests, ministers, and religious leaders. In business, Jupiter rules bankers, brokers, bondsmen, cashiers, clerks, magistrates, managers, merchants, stockbrokers, stocks, treasuries, trusts, and taxes. It is associated with celebrations, coronations, commemorations, grandeur, graduations, inaugurations, monuments, pageants, parades, regalia, rituals, salutes, and winning.

Jupiter gives affluence, amplification, applause, betterment, benevolence, bonuses, charity, chivalry, compensation, credentials, dignity, distinction, elite position, eminence, endowments, enhancement, extravagance, good fortune, gain, generosity, increases, endorsement, inheritance, integrity, joviality, luck, magnanimity, magnificence, opulence, philanthropy, prestige, pride, proclamation, promotion, protocol, protection, purity, recommendation, redemption, reputation, remuneration, restitution, reverence, self-esteem, sincerity, spirituality, splendor, success, superiority, temperance, title, tributes, verification, vindication, wealth, wisdom, worthiness, and worship.

Classical diseases and health problems associated with Jupiter are abscesses, accumulations, arteries, assimilation of food, blood in general and blood pressure, boils, the formation of red blood cells, diabetes, diseases from excess, enlargements, fatty degeneration, glands, growths, hepatic system, liver, upper legs and thighs, obesity, pleurisy, and tumors.

Modern astrology links Jupiter with the level of intelligence that perceives the world around us and puts things into a context that creates our beliefs and our world-views. It develops the rational thinking processes that lead to conclusion and understanding, bringing opinion and wisdom. Jupiter is the storyteller and is responsible for the dissemination of information on a broad scale. It is influential and inspirational in its delivery of ideas. In modern times it is associated with advertising, sales, and propaganda. Jupiter relates to higher levels of thought: education, philosophy, psychology and religion.

In Relating: An Astrological Guide to Living with Others on a Small Planet, Liz Greene identifies Jupiter as the planet symbolizing the myth-making principle:

Jupiter is thus connected with the urge within the psyche to create symbols, and this takes us into profound depths when we consider the creative power that has shaped the great myths, legends, and religions of the world. It is no less a creative power that shapes the symbolism of our dreams, so that each dream is a masterpiece of meaning and could not be altered in any way for improvement. In this way Jupiter is truly a god of the gateway, for he forms a link between conscious and unconscious through the creation and intuitive understanding of symbols. As we have seen, symbols are the primordial language of life; and Jupiter symbolizes the function which both creates them within man and intuits their meaning.

In Jyotish astrology, Jupiter is associated with the elephant-headed god Ganesh, and the king of the gods, Indra. The myths call Jupiter either Guru, which means "teacher," or Brhaspati, which means "lord of sacred speech." Jupiter is the guru to the gods.

In The Myths and Gods of India, Alain Danielou notes that Indra represents the power of the thunderbolt, the all-pervading electric energy, which is the nature of cosmic as well as animal life. He is the deity of the sphere of space, and the ruler of the storm. Indra embodies the qualities of all the gods, hence becoming the greatest. Ever young, Indra embodies all the virtues of youth: heroism, generosity, and exuberance. He stands for action and service but also for the need of force, which leads to power, to victory, and booty. He leads warriors and protects them with his thunderbolt and his bow, the rainbow. Indra loves intoxicants and pleasure. As the embodiment of virility, Indra is represented in the bull, the perfect male. He has numerous love affairs, including the wives of sages. He is given many names. Today, Indra is not the object of direct veneration, but he receives incidental worship and there is a festival in his honor called the "Raising of the Standard of Indra."

—Norma Jean Ream sources:

Bills, Rex. The Rulership Book, A Directory of Astrological Correspondences. Richmond, VA:

Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., 1971. Crane, Joseph. A Practical Guide to Traditional Astrology. Orleans, MA: Archive for the Retrieval of Historical Astrological Texts, 1997. Danielou, Alain. The Myths and Gods of India. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions International, 1991. Greene, Liz. Relating: An Astrological Guide to Living with Others on a Small Planet. 2d ed. York

Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, 1978. Hamilton, Edith. Mythology. Boston: Little, Brown, 1942.

Pasachoff, Jay M. Contemporary Astronomy. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing, 1989.

Schmidt, Robert, translator. Vettius Valens, Book I, Chapter I. Original Source Texts and Auxiliary Materials for the Study of Hellenistic Astrology and Project Hindsight, Phaser Foundation, 2002.

Wilson, James. A Complete Dictionary of Astrology. London: W. Hughes, 1819.

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