His pupil, Thomas Aquinas (c. 1226-74) was more careful and circumspect in his comments about the various magical arts. He admitted chiromancy to the category of 'natural', and therefore acceptable, divination but he excluded geomancy, on the grounds that the original figures are based on either the outcome of chance or of volunatry human action. Geomancy is therefore regarded by him as a superstition, rather than as a divinatory art with a natural basis not influenced by the reason and will, like augury.
Aquinas cautions against casting of lots, a process which is similar in technique to geomancy, unless there is a 'real necessity, or without due reverence and devotion' or for purely human and worldly purposes, excepting of course ecclesiastical elections. As Aquinas's censures are based on the theory that God is often supposed to influence the casting of lots, it follows that geomancy, which depends on voluntary human action, does not come under the heading of 'natural' divination.
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